Leishmaniases are diseases caused by infection by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum is frequent in Spain, especially in certain geographic areas. Diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis is difficult because of the varied symptoms and because making cultures of this parasite is complicated. There are also different therapeutic, medical and surgical options, none of which is fully satisfactory. We review the most significant agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Spain.