Lip leishmaniasis: a case series with molecular identification and literature review
Leishmaniasis is a cluster of diseases caused by protozoa in the genus Leishmania. There are three basic clinical forms: cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis. The present review focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Characteristics of both the human host and the parasite species influence the clinical disease manifestations that range from asymptomatic exposure, to self-healing skin ulcers, to life-threatening widespread destructive ulcerations. Whether through medical treatment or through spontaneous resolution, skin ulcerations generally result in disfiguring scars with significant social and economic impact. Tests to confirm the diagnosis should be performed on patients who have recently visited endemic areas and have skin or mucosal manifestations consistent with leishmaniasis. Treatment depends on the species of Leishmania and the risk of widespread or disfiguring disease. Because of increasing trends in global travel, educating health care providers to recognize and treat leishmaniasis in both endemic and non-endemic countries is imperative.