Customer loyalty and customer loyalty programs

@article{Uncles2003CustomerLA,
  title={Customer loyalty and customer loyalty programs},
  author={Mark D. Uncles and Grahame R. Dowling and Kathy Hammond},
  journal={Journal of Consumer Marketing},
  year={2003},
  volume={20},
  pages={294-316}
}
Customer loyalty presents a paradox. Many see it as primarily an attitude‐based phenomenon that can be influenced significantly by customer relationship management initiatives such as the increasingly popular loyalty and affinity programs. However, empirical research shows that loyalty in competitive repeat‐purchase markets is shaped more by the passive acceptance of brands than by strongly‐held attitudes about them. From this perspective, the demand‐enhancing potential of loyalty programs is… 

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