Cursoriality in bipedal archosaurs

@article{Jones2000CursorialityIB,
  title={Cursoriality in bipedal archosaurs},
  author={Terry D. Jones and James O. Farlow and John A. Ruben and Donald M. Henderson and Willem J. Hillenius},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2000},
  volume={406},
  pages={716-718}
}
Modern birds have markedly foreshortened tails and their body mass is centred anteriorly, near the wings. To provide stability during powered flight, the avian centre of mass is far from the pelvis, which poses potential balance problems for cursorial birds. To compensate, avians adapted to running maintain the femur subhorizontally, with its distal end situated anteriorly, close to the animal's centre of mass; stride generation stems largely from parasagittal rotation of the lower leg about… Expand
Biplane wing planform and flight performance of the feathered dinosaur Microraptor gui
TLDR
This reconstruction shows that the wings of Microraptor could have resembled a staggered biplane configuration during flight, where the forewing formed the dorsal wing and the metatarsal wing formed the ventral one. Expand
Limb proportions and avian terrestrial locomotion
TLDR
It is concluded that birds (Archaeopteryx + crownclade Aves) are a subgroup of the theropod dinosaurs and feathers cannot be used to define birds, as is traditionally advocated. Expand
Limb proportions and avian terrestrial locomotion
TLDR
The femoral morphology of Caudipteryx is identical to those of other nonavian theropods, strongly arguing against avian limb kinematics, and it is methodologically flawed to substitute functionally inferred characters for phylogenetic analyses. Expand
Linking the evolution of body shape and locomotor biomechanics in bird-line archosaurs
TLDR
Digital body reconstructions are used to quantify evolutionary trends in locomotor biomechanics (whole-body proportions and centre-of-mass position) across the clade Archosauria and suggest that the evolution of avian flight is linked to anatomical novelties in the pelvic limb as well as the pectoral. Expand
The evolutionary continuum of limb function from early theropods to birds
TLDR
It is emphasised that many false dichotomies or categories have been applied to theropod form and function, and sometimes, these impede research progress, and a combination of techniques that emphasises integration of neontological and palaeontological evidence and quantitative assessment of limb function cautiously applied with validated techniques and sensitivity analysis of unknown variables are needed. Expand
Origin of feathered flight
TLDR
A new approach is developed, combining terrestrial and arboreal hypotheses of the origin of flight, which indicates that for the development of true flapping avian flight, a key role was played by the initial universal anisodactylous foot of birds. Expand
Kinematics of wings from Caudipteryx to modern birds
TLDR
This research indicates that with a large enough wing span Caudipteryx-like animal could have flown, but the morphology of the shoulder girdle would not actually accommodate the necessary flapping angle and metabolic demands would be much too high to be functional. Expand
Pelvic and hind limb musculature of Staurikosaurus pricei (Dinosauria: Saurischia).
TLDR
The use of data from both extant and extinct taxa placed into a phylogenetic context allowed to make well-supported inferences concerning most of the hind limb musculature of the basal saurischian Staurikosaurus pricei Colbert, 1970. Expand
Maniraptoran pelvic musculature highlights evolutionary patterns in theropod locomotion on the line to birds
TLDR
Examination of the pelvis for osteological correlates of hind limb and tail musculature allowed reconstruction of primary locomotory muscles across theropods and their closest extant relatives and suggests that a more punctuated step in caudal decoupling occurred at or near the base of Maniraptora. Expand
Aerodynamics of Soft Flapping Wings of Caudipteryx
TLDR
It is shown that flapping feathered wings of flightless Caudipteryx would generate small amounts of aerodynamic forces based on kinematic assumptions, and modeling of flapping while running showed similar limited aerodynamic force production. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 17 REFERENCES
Caudofemoral musculature and the evolution of theropod locomotion
TLDR
Osteological evidence of both origin and insertion indicates that a substantial caudofemoralis longus was present in archosaurs primitively and was retained in the clades Di- nosauria and Theropoda, and strongly suggests that details of the orientation (subhorizontal femur) and movement (primarily knee flexion) of the hind limb in extant birds are more properly viewed as derived, uniquely avian conditions. Expand
Mechanics of posture and gait of some large dinosaurs
TLDR
The positions of dinosaurs' centres of mass, derived from models, show that some large quadrupedal dinosaurs supported most of their weight on their hind legs and were probably capable of rearing up on their hinder legs. Expand
Locomotion in non-avian dinosaurs: integrating data from hindlimb kinematics, in vivo strains, and bone morphology
TLDR
A model is proposed that relates the amount of torsional loading in femora to bone orientation, such that torsion is maximal in horizontal femora and minimal in vertical femora, and supports the prediction of similar vertical femoral postures and hip-driven limb kinematics in these two groups. Expand
Guineafowl hind limb function. I: Cineradiographic analysis and speed effects
  • S. Gatesy
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of morphology
  • 1999
TLDR
Avian striding bipedalism was studied in the helmeted guineafowl, Numida meleagris with direct visualization of the skeleton in X‐ray images allowed changes in pelvic and femoral position to be quantified with great accuracy for the first time. Expand
Guineafowl hind limb function. II: Electromyographic analysis and motor pattern evolution
  • S. Gatesy
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of morphology
  • 1999
TLDR
Although data are limited, lizards appear to have very conservative muscle activity similar to that of the ancestral saurian, and hind limb motor patterns were compared to those of their homologs in representative lizards and crocodilians. Expand
Three-dimensional preservation of foot movements in Triassic theropod dinosaurs
Dinosaur footprints have been used extensively as biostratigraphic markers, environmental indicators, measures of faunal diversity and evidence of group behaviour,. Trackways have also been used toExpand
Bipedal locomotion: effects of speed, size and limb posture in birds and humans
TLDR
Seven species of ground-dwelling birds and high-speed light films were taken of humans to compare kinematic patterns of avian with human bipedalism, finding differences appear to reflect a spring-like run that is stiff in humans but more compliant in birds. Expand
Hind limb scaling in birds and other theropods: Implications for terrestrial locomotion
  • S. Gatesy
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of morphology
  • 1991
TLDR
An analysis of hind limb skeletal elements of non‐avian theropods and ground‐dwelling birds was performed to reveal patterns of change in shape and proportion with size, finding avian femora exhibit a unique diameter/length relationship not seen in other theropod hind limb bones. Expand
A nearly complete skeleton of a new troodontid dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of the Ordos Basin, Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China
An articulated skeleton of a 1 m long theropod from Early Cretaceous strata in Inner Mongolia is clearly referrable to the Troodontidae, representing the most complete specimen known of this group ofExpand
ESTIMATING THE MASSES AND CENTERS OF MASS OF EXTINCT ANIMALS BY 3-D MATHEMATICAL SLICING
A mathematical-computational method for determining the volume, mass, and center of mass of any bilaterally symmetric organism is presented. Cavities within the body of an organism such as lungs areExpand
...
1
2
...