This paper presents current methods used in the diagnosis of osteoarticular tuberculosis in the Czech Republic. It draws attention to difficulties and errors associated with the diagnosis of this disease. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive review of relevant diagnostic methods, from medical history to imaging techniques. A misdiagnosis and/or a late establishment of the diagnosis, which may result in inadequate primary therapy, prolong both the time needed for complete treatment and the duration of absenteeism. These may eventually have negative economic and social implications.