Current understanding of methamphetamine-associated dopaminergic neurodegeneration and psychotoxic behaviors

@article{Shin2017CurrentUO,
  title={Current understanding of methamphetamine-associated dopaminergic neurodegeneration and psychotoxic behaviors},
  author={Eun-Joo Shin and Duy-Khanh Dang and T. Tran and Hai-Quyen Tran and Ji Hoon Jeong and Seung-Yeol Nah and Choon-Gon Jang and Kiyofumi Yamada and Toshitaka Nabeshima and Hyoung‐Chun Kim},
  journal={Archives of Pharmacal Research},
  year={2017},
  volume={40},
  pages={403-428}
}
Clinical and preclinical studies have indicated that chronic methamphetamine (MA) use is associated with extensive neurodegeneration, psychosis, and cognitive impairment. Evidence from animal models has suggested a considerable role of excess dopamine or glutamate, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and apoptosis in MA-induced neurotoxicity, and that protein kinase Cδ might mediate the interaction among these factors. In addition, the relatively long-lasting and recurrent nature of MA… 
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Current research on methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity: animal models of monoamine disruption.
TLDR
A role for apoptosis in METH-induced neurotoxicity has also been established including evidence of protection of bcl-2, expression of p53 protein, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL), activity of caspase-3.
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