Current status on behavioral and biological markers of PTSD: A search for clarity in a conflicting literature

@article{Zoladz2013CurrentSO,
  title={Current status on behavioral and biological markers of PTSD: A search for clarity in a conflicting literature},
  author={Phillip R Zoladz and David M Diamond},
  journal={Neuroscience \& Biobehavioral Reviews},
  year={2013},
  volume={37},
  pages={860-895}
}

Tables from this paper

Post-traumatic stress disorder

TLDR
The field of PTSD is currently challenged by fluctuations in diagnostic criteria, which have implications for epidemiological, biological, genetic and treatment studies, but the advent of new biological methodologies offers the possibility of large-scale approaches to heterogeneous and genetically complex brain disorders, and provides optimism that individualized approaches to diagnosis and treatment will be discovered.

Posttraumatic stress disorder under ongoing threat: a review of neurobiological and neuroendocrine findings

TLDR
Although PTSD under ongoing threat is characterized by abnormal neurocircuitry patterns similar to those previously found in PTSD after finished trauma, this is less so for other neurobiological and in particular neuroendocrine findings.

Psychophysiology in the study of psychological trauma: where are we now and where do we need to be?

TLDR
This review focuses on the current state of the knowledge regarding psychophysiological measures and PTSD with a focus on physiological markers associated with current PTSD symptoms, as well as markers of constructs thought to be relevant to PTSD symptomatology (safety signal learning, fear extinction), and Psychophysiological markers of risk for developing PTSD following trauma.

Animal models of post-traumatic stress disorder and recent neurobiological insights

TLDR
Animal models report traumatic stress-induced and trauma reminder-induced alterations in neuronal activity in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex, in agreement with the human PTSD literature, and provided a conceptual framework for the often-observed combination of PTSD and comorbid conditions such as alcohol use disorder.

Assessing physiological sensitivity in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

People who have endured horrific events often bear predictable psychological harm. The symptoms of this harm can persist to produce a recognised clinical syndrome, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 144

TLDR
This chapter reviews some of the biological evidence for PTSD and epigenetic mechanisms that may explain how environmental experience could confer longlasting biological effects such as changes in the sensitivity to the stress hormone cortisol.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression severity in sexually assaulted women: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis alterations

TLDR
Elevated ACTH and an elevated cortisol response in patients with comorbid depressive symptoms were the opposite of the expected response for patients with PTSD only, leading to the hypothesis that the neurobiological alterations of PTSD are related to the type of symptoms presented and their severity.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 778 REFERENCES

Cognitive abnormalities in posttraumatic stress disorder

TLDR
Individuals with PTSD experience cognitive alterations ranging from impairments in overall memory functioning to difficulties specific to trauma-related cues, and it is unclear whether common mechanisms may account for these diverse cognitive difficulties and whether cognitive impairments are attributable to comorbid depression.

PTSD and stress sensitisation: A tale of brain and body Part 1: Human studies

  • R. Stam
  • Psychology, Biology
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
  • 2007

Considering trauma exposure in the context of genetics studies of posttraumatic stress disorder: a systematic review

TLDR
As trauma exposure is a necessary condition for the PTSD diagnosis, this paper identifies gaps in the current literature as well as provides recommendations for how future GWAS studies can most effectively incorporate trauma exposure data in both the design and analysis phases of studies.

Posttraumatic stress disorder: a state-of-the-science review.

A short review on the psychoneuroimmunology of posttraumatic stress disorder: From risk factors to medical comorbidities

Genetics of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Review and Recommendations for Genome-Wide Association Studies

TLDR
Genome-wide association studies offer the best opportunity to identify novel “true” risk variants for the disorder that in turn has the potential to inform the understanding of PTSD etiology.

The functional neuroanatomy of PTSD: a critical review.

Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in PTSD

TLDR
Attempts to employ global measures of functioning such as the Global Assessment of Functioning to equate subjects within a study on minimally this characteristic may be the most economical method for trying to rule out the role of comorbidity and severity of condition in conclusions drawn in research studies.

PTSD and gene variants: New pathways and new thinking

...