Current status on behavioral and biological markers of PTSD: A search for clarity in a conflicting literature

@article{Zoladz2013CurrentSO,
  title={Current status on behavioral and biological markers of PTSD: A search for clarity in a conflicting literature},
  author={P. Zoladz and D. Diamond},
  journal={Neuroscience \& Biobehavioral Reviews},
  year={2013},
  volume={37},
  pages={860-895}
}
Extensive research has identified stereotypic behavioral and biological abnormalities in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), such as heightened autonomic activity, an exaggerated startle response, reduced basal cortisol levels and cognitive impairments. We have reviewed primary research in this area, noting that factors involved in the susceptibility and expression of PTSD symptoms are more complex and heterogeneous than is commonly stated, with extensive findings which are inconsistent with… Expand
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