Current status of leprosy: Epidemiology, basic science and clinical perspectives

  title={Current status of leprosy: Epidemiology, basic science and clinical perspectives},
  author={Koichi Suzuki and Takeshi Akama and Akira Kawashima and Aya Yoshihara and Rie Roselyne Yotsu and Norihisa Ishii},
  journal={The Journal of Dermatology},
Leprosy has affected humans for millennia and remains an important health problem worldwide, as evidenced by nearly 250 000 new cases detected every year. It is a chronic infectious disorder, caused by Mycobacterium leprae, that primarily affects the skin and peripheral nerves. Recent advances in basic science have improved our knowledge of the disease. Variation in the cellular immune response is the basis of a range of clinical manifestations. The introduction of multidrug therapy has… 
An Update on the Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Treatment of Leprosy
The prevalence of this ancient disease is declining in most around the world and this decline is a direct effect of widespread adminis tration by public health workers of multidrug therapy, however, emerging despite the use of multi-drug therapy, identifying and monitoring resistance are still necessary.
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It is demonstrated that delay in diagnosis is common, especially when patients present with symptoms of leprosy reactions rather than classical symptoms, such as hypo‐pigmented hypo-aesthetic skin lesions and neuropathy.
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This review summarizes the disease, efficacy of treatment, and elucidates current policies of the WHO in the task to eliminate leprosy.
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The Passive Immunity Pediatrics (M) susceptibleExposed-infected-recovered-susceptible (MSEIRS) model was adopted to depict the spread of infections in the authors' environment and provides conceptual results such as threshold and basic reproduction number.
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Leprosy is an exciting model for investigating the role of the human immune system in host defense and susceptibility to infection and may also play important roles in the further modification of seesaw-like bipolar phenotypes of leprosy.
The problem of leprosy: Past, present and future
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A Clinical Study of Ocular Manifestations of Leprosy
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Using comparative genomics, it is demonstrated that all extant cases of leprosy are attributable to a single clone whose dissemination worldwide can be retraced from analysis of very rare single-nucleotide polymorphisms.
Use of Genetic Profiling in Leprosy to Discriminate Clinical Forms of the Disease
Genes belonging to the leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor (LIR) family were significantly up-regulated in lesions of lepromatous patients suffering from the disseminated form of the infection.
Mycobacterium leprae interactions with the host cell: recent advances.
  • L. Barker
  • Biology, Medicine
    The Indian journal of medical research
  • 2006
The studies described in this review present a new and evolving picture of the many interactions between M. leprae and host cells both in vitro and in vivo to identify the host and bacterial factors integral to establishment of disease.
Relapse in leprosy.
Clinicians may need to use their judgement to modify the standard WHO treatment regimens according to the scenario in each patient, and factors that should be considered are the type of leprosy (PB or MB), previous treatment and drug resistance.
Leprosy as a challenge to science on the ability to decode its enigma. A hypothesis on how to respond.
  • E. Matsuo
  • Biology, Medicine
    Japanese journal of infectious diseases
  • 2005
The analyses of historical and scientific legitimacy of the current idea about the etiology of leprosy that have unreasonably rejected the possibility of dual infections in relation to that of Mycobacterium leprae strongly suggest the coexistence of the above two bacilli throughout past years.
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Although patients with the polar TT and LL forms of the disease are generally stable, in the absence of therapy there is a gradual decline in the cellular immune response in the majority of patients, so that they downgrade to a more lepromatous form of disease.
Sparfloxacin in the treatment of leprosy patients
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Epidemiologic characteristics of leprosy reactions.
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Epidemiological characteristics of leprosy reactions: 15 years experience from north India.
  • B. Kumar, S. Dogra, I. Kaur
  • Medicine
    International journal of leprosy and other mycobacterial diseases : official organ of the International Leprosy Association
  • 2004
Occurrence of recurrent and late reactions, even though of mild severity, highlights the importance of recognizing and treating them promptly to prevent or reduce morbidity, complications, and further deterioration in the disability status.
Molecular basis of rifampin resistance in Mycobacterium leprae
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