Current status of HIV infection: a review for non‐HIV‐treating physicians

  title={Current status of HIV infection: a review for non‐HIV‐treating physicians},
  author={Bettina M Knoll and Britta Lassmann and Zelalem Temesgen},
  journal={International Journal of Dermatology},
An estimated 40 million people live with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) globally, and over four million people were newly diagnosed with HIV infection in 2006. Twenty‐five million people have died as a result of HIV since its recognition in 1981. Where available, highly active antiretroviral therapy has resulted in significant decreases in HIV‐associated morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, opportunistic infections and conditions continue to occur, and their recognition and management… 
Immunological and Virological Responses in Older HIV-Infected Adults Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy: An Evidence-Based Meta-Analysis.
It is reported that older patients showed poor immunological responses, with CD4 counts and the restoration ofCD4 counts after ART initiation, being significantly lower than seen in younger patients, and older adults had a higher risk of AIDS-related death.
HIV/AIDS in Children: Current Update
Every pregnant woman should be tested for HIV to have a better chance of preventing transmission to her unborn child and there is no vaccine to prevent HIV and AIDS although researchers are working to develop one.
HIV‐associated pulmonary arterial hypertension: from bedside to the future
The prevalence of HIV‐associated PAH (HIV‐PAH) seems not to be changed over time, regardless of the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
CD 4 Cell Count of HIV-Positive Patients in Awka , South East Nigeria
Evaluating the CD4 count of treatment naïve HIV–positive patients who registered at HIV clinic of Anambra State University Teaching Hospital Awka between Jan 2011-June 2013 found that most HIV positive patients in this study require antiretroviral therapy.
CD4 Cell Count of HIV-Positive Patients in Awka, South East Nigeria
Evaluating the CD4 count of treatment naive HIV–positive patients who registered at HIV clinic of Anambra State University Teaching Hospital Awka between Jan 2011-June 2013 found that most HIV positive patients in this study were self-employed, based on current guidelines.
Mathematical Analysis of Side effects of HIV/AIDS Medication
The objective of this research is to be modeled some major drug induced side effects by using fuzzy matrix theory which is one of the best tools to analyze unsupervised data involving imprecision.
Though second line ART regimens are associated with mild to moderate ADRs, these are most effective regimens as they improved  CD4 counts and reduced viral load significantly.
Coinfection between human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis: A consideration on ritonavir-related heme Oxygenase-1 pathway
Ritonavir-related heme oxygenase-1 pathway is an important pathway that might affect the treatment of tuberculosis and dosage adjustment for tuberculosis treatment in HIV- infected patients with concurrent tuberculosis infection is necessary.
HIV-1 Replication in HIV-Infected Individuals Is Significantly Reduced When Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Are Superinfected with HSV-1
The results confirmed that the number of activated (CD3+ and CD38+) T lymphocytes in HIV-infected individuals was significantly higher than in healthy donors and the effects of HSV-1 superinfection on HIV-1 production was significantly greater than that of healthy donors.


Immune restoration disease after the treatment of immunodeficient HIV‐infected patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy
A single‐centre retrospective study of all HIV‐infected patients commencing HAART prior to 1 July 1997 was undertaken to determine the incidence, characteristics and time of onset of disease episodes in HAART responders.
The prevalence and risk of immune restoration disease in HIV‐infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy
The risk of developing IRD in HAART‐treated HIV‐infected patients is examined and it is becoming increasingly clear that, during successful highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), a proportion of treated patients develop opportunistic infections.
Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection.
A study was conducted to evaluate the impact of protease inhibitors on the rates of selected opportunistic processes and mortality in patients with AIDS and found similar results.
Incidence of Tuberculosis in the United States among HIV-Infected Persons
The incidence of tuberculosis among patients enrolled in the Pulmonary Complications of HIV Infection Study was examined for a median observation period of approximately 4.5 years, and determinants of delayed-type hypersensitivity response and risk factors for tuberculosis reactivity were identified.
Life expectancy of patients with newly-diagnosed HIV infection in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
The results support the expansion of HIV screening programs to minimize delay in diagnosis and raise questions about what kind of preventive heath services should be offered.
The role of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in AIDS-related Cryptococcus neoformans disease in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
This study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients coinfected with Cryptococcus neoformans found that 30% of patients who initiated highly active antiretroviral therapy developed
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Decreases Mortality and Morbidity in Patients with Advanced HIV Disease
The effect of HAART was studied in a large multicenter trial of blood transfusion in patients with advanced HIV disease who were also anemic, an indicator of poor prognosis, and estimates of the magnitude of the effect ofHAART on mortality and morbidity are less likely to be confounded by changes in patient mix or medical practice compared with previously published studies.
Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents, January 28, 2000
Abstract These Guidelines were developed by the Panel* on Clinical Practices for Treatment of HIV Infection convened by the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the Henry J. Kaiser
Tuberculosis after HAART initiation in HIV-positive patients from five countries with a high tuberculosis burden
High incidence rates of notified TB under HAART in programmes held in poor-resource countries were observed; these were likely to include both undiagnosed prevalent TB at HAART initiation and subclinical TB developing during the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.