Current perspectives in bladder cancer management.

@article{Griffiths2013CurrentPI,
  title={Current perspectives in bladder cancer management.},
  author={T. R. Leyshon Griffiths},
  journal={International journal of clinical practice},
  year={2013},
  volume={67 5},
  pages={
          435-48
        }
}
More than 350,000 new cases of bladder cancer are diagnosed worldwide each year; the vast majority (> 90%) of these are transitional cell carcinomas (TCC). The most important risk factors for the development of bladder cancer are smoking and occupational exposure to toxic chemicals. Painless visible haematuria is the most common presenting symptom of bladder cancer; significant haematuria requires referral to a specialist urology service. Cystoscopy and urine cytology are currently the… CONTINUE READING
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