Current management of advanced and metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

  title={Current management of advanced and metastatic renal cell carcinoma.},
  author={Muhammad Hammad Ather and Nehal Masood and Tahmeena Siddiqui},
  journal={Urology journal},
  volume={7 1},
INTRODUCTION Unresectable renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a technically incurable condition. Historically, RCC is resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Cytokine therapy was until recently considered the mainstay of treatment. However, responses are modest. Improvement in the understanding of the biology of RCC, particularly the hereditary types, is providing the basis for novel therapeutic targets. Our aim was to review the clinical utility of various systemic agents and surgery in the… CONTINUE READING