The authors review different mechanisms of mnemotropic and cerebroprotective effects of nootropic drugs. The data concerning the molecular mechanisms of action of the structural analogs of the memory stimulant ethylnorantifeine (etimizol) have been summarized and analyzed. It is shown that the effects of antifeines on the retention of the conditioned reflexes are independent of their effects on the cAMP system and structural-functional condition of the neuronal membrane. The key role in the action of these compounds on the long-term memory is played by the activity of the genetic apparatus. The existence of nootropic receptors in neuronal chromatin is assumed.