Current Status and Prospects for Cannabidiol Preparations as New Therapeutic Agents

@article{Fasinu2016CurrentSA,
  title={Current Status and Prospects for Cannabidiol Preparations as New Therapeutic Agents},
  author={Pius S. Fasinu and Sarah Phillips and Mahmoud A. Elsohly and Larry A. Walker},
  journal={Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy},
  year={2016},
  volume={36}
}
States and the federal government are under growing pressure to legalize the use of cannabis products for medical purposes in the United States. Sixteen states have legalized (or decriminalized possession of) products high in cannabidiol (CBD) and with restricted ∆9‐tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9‐THC) content. In most of these states, the intent is for use in refractory epileptic seizures in children, but in a few states, the indications are broader. This review provides an overview of the… 
The implications of the use of cannabidiol-related products in a safety-sensitive drug testing environment: A medical-legal perspective.
TLDR
Hemp- and CBD-containing products were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compliance was assessed for CBD and Δ9-THC purity against the legislative thresholds, and a strategy based on metabolite ratios is suggested to distinguish between intentional or irresponsible cannabis use and legitimate CBD use.
Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Cannabinoids and Potential Drug-Drug Interactions.
TLDR
The present chapter overview summarizes the current knowledge on the pharmacokinetics and metabolic fate of CBD and THC in humans and discusses relevant drug-drug interactions, giving a plausible explanation to facilitate further research in the area.
Clinicians' Guide to Cannabidiol and Hemp Oils.
Effects of cannabidiol on alcohol-related outcomes: A review of preclinical and human research.
TLDR
Preliminary preclinical results suggest that CBD can attenuate alcohol consumption and potentially protect against certain harmful effects of alcohol, such as liver and brain damage.
Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Seizures, Convulsions and Epilepsy
TLDR
There remains a clear need for further studies of the structure-activity relationships and mechanisms of action of CBD-based formulations to ensure that the therapeutic indices of dosage formulations are clearly understood and optimized for patient populations.
Use of Cannabidiol for the Treatment of Anxiety: A Short Synthesis of Pre-Clinical and Clinical Evidence.
TLDR
Early evidence from human trials using both healthy volunteers and individuals with social anxiety disorder, suggests that CBD may have anxiolytic effects, and future research is warranted to determine the efficacy of CBD in other anxiety disorders, establish appropriate doses, and determine its long-term efficacy.
Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Experimental Models of Neurological Disease
TLDR
Cannabidiol, through multi-target mechanisms, represents a valid therapeutic tool for the management of epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease.
Pharmacological properties of cannabidiol in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: a critical overview
TLDR
Current evidences suggest that CBD has the ability to reduce psychotic, anxiety and withdrawal symptoms by means of several hypothesised pharmacological properties, however, further studies should include larger randomised controlled samples and investigate the impact of CBD on biological measures in order to correlate CBD's clinical effects to potential modifications of neurotransmitters signalling and structural and functional cerebral changes.
A Conversion of Oral Cannabidiol to Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Seems Not to Occur in Humans
TLDR
The typical spectrum of side effects of THC, or of the very similar synthetic cannabinoid nabilone, as listed in the official Summary of Product Characteristics has not been observed after treatment with CBD in double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trials, and seems to be an in vitro artifact.
Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol Drug-Drug Interactions
TLDR
A comprehensive list of drug-drug interactions and a list of 57 prescription medications displaying a narrow therapeutic index that are potentially impacted by concomitant cannabinoid use (whether through prescription use of cannabinoid medications or therapeutic/recreational use of cannabis and its extracts).
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 80 REFERENCES
Cannabidiol: Pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders
TLDR
CBD bears investigation in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders, including anxiety, schizophrenia, addiction, and neonatal hypoxic‐ischemic encephalopathy, however, data from well‐powered double‐blind randomized, controlled studies on the efficacy of pure CBD for any disorder is lacking.
Cannabidiol monotherapy for treatment-resistant schizophrenia
TLDR
The preliminary data suggest that CBD monotherapy may not be effective for TRS, and patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia should be switched to olanzapine for over 15 days.
Molecular targets for cannabidiol and its synthetic analogues: effect on vanilloid VR1 receptors and on the cellular uptake and enzymatic hydrolysis of anandamide
TLDR
Results suggest that VR1 receptors, or increased levels of endogenous AEA, might mediate some of the pharmacological effects of CBD and its analogues, and (−)‐5′‐DMH‐CBD represents a valuable candidate for further investigation as inhibitor of AEA uptake and a possible new therapeutic agent.
Cannabis, a complex plant: different compounds and different effects on individuals
  • Z. Atakan
  • Biology
    Therapeutic advances in psychopharmacology
  • 2012
TLDR
An overview of the biochemical basis of cannabis research is provided by examining the different effects of the two main compounds of the plant and the endocannabinoid system, and available information on the possible factors explaining variation of its effects upon different individuals is reviewed.
Controlled clinical trial of cannabidiol in Huntington's disease
Effects of cannabidiol on schizophrenia-like symptoms in people who use cannabis
TLDR
Hair samples were analysed to examine levels of Δ9-THC and CBD in 140 individuals and three clear groups emerged: ’THC only’, ‘THC+CBD’ and those with no cannabinoid in hair, which provides evidence of the divergent properties of cannabinoids.
History of cannabis as a medicine: a review.
  • A. Zuardi
  • Biology
    Revista brasileira de psiquiatria
  • 2006
TLDR
A new and more consistent cycle of the use of cannabis derivatives as medication begins, since treatment effectiveness and safety started to be scientifically proven.
Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia
TLDR
It is suggested that inhibition of anandamide deactivation may contribute to the antipsychotic effects of cannabidiol potentially representing a completely new mechanism in the treatment of schizophrenia.
Phytocannabinoids beyond the Cannabis plant – do they exist?
TLDR
This commentary summarizes and critically discusses recent findings on non‐cannabinoid plant constituents reported to bind to and functionally interact with CB receptors in Cannabis sativa L. has a long history as a medicinal plant and was fundamental in the discovery of the endocannabinoid system.
Cannabidiol exhibits anxiolytic but not antipsychotic property evaluated in the social interaction test
...
...