Current Approaches to Change Blindness

  title={Current Approaches to Change Blindness},
  author={Daniel J. Simons},
  journal={Visual Cognition},
  pages={1 - 15}
  • D. Simons
  • Published 1 January 2000
  • Psychology
  • Visual Cognition
Across saccades, blinks, blank screens, movie cuts, and other interruptions, observers fail to detect substantial changes to the visual details of objects and scenes. This inability to spot changes (“change blindness”) is the focus of this special issue of Visual Cognition. This introductory paper briefly reviews recent studies of change blindness, noting the relation of these findings to earlier research and discussing the inferences we can draw from them. Most explanations of change blindness… 

Change Blindness in the Absence of a Visual Disruption

In two experiments, it is demonstrated that change blindness can occur even in the absence of a visual disruption, and when changes are sufficiently gradual, the visible change signal does not seem to draw attention, and large changes can go undetected.

Memory for centrally attended changing objects in an incidental real-world change detection paradigm.

It is shown that change blindness for a conversation partner occurs in a variety of situations, and participants who noticed the substitution showed better memory for both pre- and post-change experimenters than participants who did not detect the change.

A Bayesian Approach to Change Blindness

It is suggested that the integration of information across saccades relies on principles of optimal—or Bayesian—inference, and that change blindness is a consequence of this strategy.

Gorillas in Our Midst: Sustained Inattentional Blindness for Dynamic Events

A new study builds on classic studies of divided visual attention to examine inattentional blindness for complex objects and events in dynamic scenes and suggests that the likelihood of noticing an unexpected object depends on the similarity of that object to other objects in the display and on how difficult the priming monitoring task is.

Evidence for Preserved Representations in Change Blindness

In three experiments, it is shown that people often do have a representation of some aspects of the pre-change scene even when they fail to report the change, and they appear to "discover" this memory and can explicitly report details of a changed object in response to probing questions.

Change detection.

Five aspects of visual change detection are reviewed; it is shown that under a variety of conditions observers are often unable to see large changes directly in their field of view, and it is argued that this "change blindness" indicates that focused attention is needed to detect change.

Change Detection in a Change Blindness Flicker Paradigm

This study explored trends in change detection within the change blindness (CB) flicker paradigm. A sample comprising 92 university students was tested for speed in change detection. A number of

Change blindness and inattentional blindness.

The central paradigms used to explore each phenomenon in a historical context are discussed and the central findings from each field are outlined and their implications for visual perception and attention are discussed.

Attenuated Change Blindness for Exogenously Attended Items in a Flicker Paradigm

When two scenes are alternately displayed, separated by a mask, even large, repeated changes between the scenes often go unnoticed for surprisingly long durations. Change blindness of this sort is



Change blindness

People often fail to notice large changes to visual scenes, a phenomenon now known as change blindness. The extent of change blindness in visual perception suggests limits on our capacity to encode,

Failure to detect changes to attended objects in motion pictures

Our intuition that we richly represent the visual details of our environment is illusory. When viewing a scene, we seem to use detailed representations of object properties and interobject relations

Failure to detect changes to people during a real-world interaction

Recent research on change detection has documented surprising failures to detect visual changes occurring between views of a scene, suggesting the possibility that visual representations contain few

Perceiving Real-World Viewpoint Changes

Retinal images vary as observers move through the environment, but observers seem to have little difficulty recognizing objects and scenes across changes in view. Although real-world view changes can

Change-blindness as a result of ‘mudsplashes’

It is found that change-blindness can occur even when the disruption does not cover or obscure the changes, and is potentially important in driving, surveillance or navigation, as dangerous events occurring in full view can go unnoticed if they coincide with even very small, apparently innocuous, disturbances.

In Sight, Out of Mind: When Object Representations Fail

Models of human visual memory often presuppose an extraordinary ability to recognize and identify objects, based on evidence for nearly flawless recognition of hundreds or even thousands of pictures

Familiarity and visual change detection

  • H. Pashler
  • Psychology
    Perception & psychophysics
  • 1988
Detection of change when one display of familiar objects replaces another display might be based purely upon visual codes, or also on identity information (i.e., knowingwhat was presentwhere in the

What Is Integrated Across Fixations

A central question of visual perception is how the percept of a stable world emerges from all this chaos.

Failure to integrate visual information from successive fixations

Screen brightness (2 log units above threshold) eliminated the phosphor persistence that probably accounts for the success of Jonides et al.

Is the Richness of Our Visual World an Illusion? Transsaccadic Memory for Complex Scenes

The results reveal the poverty of transsaccadic memory for real-life complex scenes and are discussed with respect to Dennett's view that much less information is available in vision than the authors' subjective impression leads us to believe.