Current Approach to Dry Eye Disease.


Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that causes tear film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface. The prevalence of dry eye in the world population ranges from 6 to 34 %. It is more common in those aged over 50, and affects mainly women. Since the introduction of the Schirmer's test in 1903, other tests have been developed to evaluate dry eye, such as biomicroscopy, the tear film breakup time (BUT), vital dyes (lissamine green and rose bengal), fluorescein, leaf fern test, corneal sensitivity test, conjunctiva impression cytology, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and tear osmolarity measurement. Although there is no gold standard, it is advisable to combine at least two tests. Strategies for treating DED have recently been modified and include patient education, tear substitute, corticosteroids, secretagogues, fatty acids, immunomodulators, occlusion of lacrimal puncta surgery and, tarsorrhaphy. Biological therapy and new topical immunomodulators such as tacrolimus, tofacitinib and IL-1 receptor inhibitor are being tested. In this review, the evaluation tests for dry eye are compared and the main studies on treatment are presented, with emphasis on studies in patients with Sjögren's syndrome. The authors propose an approach for the management of dry eye.

DOI: 10.1007/s12016-014-8438-7

Cite this paper

@article{Valim2015CurrentAT, title={Current Approach to Dry Eye Disease.}, author={Val{\'e}ria Valim and Virg{\'i}nia Fernandes Moça Trevisani and Jacqueline Martins de Sousa and Ver{\^o}nica Silva Vilela and Rubens Neto Belfort}, journal={Clinical reviews in allergy & immunology}, year={2015}, volume={49 3}, pages={288-97} }