Cumulative Sperm Whale Bone Damage and the Bends

@article{Moore2004CumulativeSW,
  title={Cumulative Sperm Whale Bone Damage and the Bends},
  author={Michael J Moore and Greg A. Early},
  journal={Science},
  year={2004},
  volume={306},
  pages={2215 - 2215}
}
Diving mosasaurs, plesiosaurs, and humans develop dysbaric osteonecrosis from end-artery nitrogen embolism ("the bends") in certain bones. Sixteen sperm whales from calves to large adults showed a size-related development of osteonecrosis in chevron and rib bone articulations, deltoid crests, and nasal bones. Occurrence in animals from the Pacific and Atlantic oceans over 111 years made a pathophysiological diagnosis of dysbarism most likely. Decompression avoidance therefore may constrain… 
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