Cultures in chimpanzees

  title={Cultures in chimpanzees},
  author={Andrew Whiten and Jane Goodall and William C. McGrew and Toshisada Nishida and Vernon Reynolds and Y. Yugiyama and Caroline E. G. Tutin and Richard W. Wrangham and Christophe Boesch},
As an increasing number of field studies of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have achieved long-term status across Africa, differences in the behavioural repertoires described have become apparent that suggest there is significant cultural variation. Here we present a systematic synthesis of this information from the seven most long-term studies, which together have accumulated 151 years of chimpanzee observation. This comprehensive analysis reveals patterns of variation that are far more… 
Pan African culture: Memes and genes in wild chimpanzees
  • A. Whiten
  • Biology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2007
The authors conclude that the phylogenetic trees that best describe the affinities between the behavioral profiles of different chimpanzee communities are not compatible with a genetic explanation and instead support the cultural interpretation.
Controlled studies of chimpanzee cultural transmission.
The following chapter details a series of experimental studies at Yerkes National Primate Research Center of Emory University designed to investigate the conditions under which chimpanzees learn from one another, how behaviors are transmitted, and how cultures are maintained over generations.
Phylogenetic analyses of behavior support existence of culture among wild chimpanzees
Cl cladistic analyses of the major cross-site behavioral data set are used to test the hypothesis that the behavioral differences among the best-documented chimpanzee populations are genetically determined and support the suggestion that thebehavior patterns are the product of social learning and, therefore, can be considered cultural.
Cultural variation among chimpanzee communities or unit-groups at nine long-term study sites was charted through a systematic, collaborative procedure in which the directors of the sites first agreed
Cultural assemblages show nested structure in humans and chimpanzees but not orangutans
A significant degree of nestedness is found in human and chimpanzee cultural repertoires, but not for orangutans, suggesting that the traits required for sequential cultural evolution first appeared in the last common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans.
Transmission of Multiple Traditions within and between Chimpanzee Groups
Robust experimental evidence is provided that alternative foraging techniques seeded in different groups of chimpanzees spread differentially not only within groups but serially across two further groups with substantial fidelity, offering the first experimental evidence that a nonhuman species can sustain unique local cultures.
Are behavioral differences among wild chimpanzee communities genetic or cultural? An assessment using tool-use data and phylogenetic methods.
This study refutes the genetic hypothesis and provides further evidence that patterns of behavior in chimpanzees are the product of social learning and therefore meet the main condition for culture.
Demographic influences on the behavior of chimpanzees
How the demographic context affects the possible range of behavioral options open to individuals and ultimately contributes to the explanation of behavioral diversity in chimpanzees is illustrated.
The extent of cultural variation between adjacent chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) communities; a microecological approach.
It is suggested that transmission of cultural knowledge plays a role in determining insectivory prey behavior, independent of ecological conditions, which can lead to large numbers of cultural diversification between neighboring chimpanzee communities.
Panthropology of the Fourth Chimpanzee: A Contribution to Cultural Primatology
A trademark of Homo sapiens is the enormous variation in behavioural patterns across populations. Insight into the development of human cultures can be aided by studies of Pan communities across


The emergence of cultures among wild chimpanzees.
Culture has been granted by primatologists to the chimpanzee, on the base of the many population-specific behaviour patterns they possess. Psychologist tend to disagree arguing that individual
Evidence for a Social Custom in Wild Chimpanzees
Can the concept of culture be applied validly to any of the natural behaviours exhibited by non-human primates? We compare aspects of social grooming shown by two separate populations of wild
Song "Dialects" in Three Populations of White-Crowned Sparrows
This paper seeks to provide some of the necessary information about song variation in the individual and in a population, both at one time and from year to year, and also by comparing songs in three populations, two adjacent and one distant.
Animal cultures and a general theory of cultural evolution
Abstract A review of evidence reveals that animal traditions are phylogenetically widespread, appearing in all major vertebrate classes and in the Insecta. Some, but not all, of these traditions fit
Acquisition of innovative cultural behaviors in nonhuman primates A case study of stone handling, a socially transmitted behavior in Japanese macaques
The question of whether or not animals have culture, and if they do have, how does animal culture differs from that of humans has long been a topic of interest and debate. The pioneering studies of
Processes of social learning in the tool use of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and human children (Homo sapiens).
Common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and 2-year-old human children (Homo sapiens) were presented with a rakelike tool and a desirable but out-of-reach object. One group of subjects observed a human
▪ Abstract Cultural primatology is hypothesized on the basis of social learning of group-specific behavior by nonhuman primates, especially in nature. Scholars ask different questions in testing this
Is nut cracking in wild chimpanzees a cultural behaviour
Abstract Nut cracking behaviour, once thought to be typical for most West African chimpanzees, is in reality restricted to a very small area within the evergreen forest perimeter. In Cote d'Ivoire,
The evolution of culture in animals
John Bonner traces the origins of culture back to the early biological evolution of animals and provides examples of five categories of behavior leading to nonhuman culture: physical dexterity, relations with other species, auditory communication within a species, geographic locations, and inventions or innovations.
Discovering and learning tool-use for fishing honey by captive chimpanzees
Wild chimpanzees commonly use sticks to fish for termites, ants or honey. This ability seems to be socially transmitted to juveniles by their mothers across generations. In a natural environment, the