Cultures in chimpanzees

@article{Whiten1999CulturesIC,
  title={Cultures in chimpanzees},
  author={Andrew Whiten and Jane Goodall and William C. McGrew and Toshisada Nishida and Vernon Reynolds and Yukimaru Sugiyama and Caroline E. G. Tutin and Richard W. Wrangham and C. Boesch},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1999},
  volume={399},
  pages={682-685}
}
As an increasing number of field studies of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have achieved long-term status across Africa, differences in the behavioural repertoires described have become apparent that suggest there is significant cultural variation. Here we present a systematic synthesis of this information from the seven most long-term studies, which together have accumulated 151 years of chimpanzee observation. This comprehensive analysis reveals patterns of variation that are far more… 

Pan African culture: Memes and genes in wild chimpanzees

  • A. Whiten
  • Biology, Psychology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2007
The authors conclude that the phylogenetic trees that best describe the affinities between the behavioral profiles of different chimpanzee communities are not compatible with a genetic explanation and instead support the cultural interpretation.

Controlled studies of chimpanzee cultural transmission.

Phylogenetic analyses of behavior support existence of culture among wild chimpanzees

Cl cladistic analyses of the major cross-site behavioral data set are used to test the hypothesis that the behavioral differences among the best-documented chimpanzee populations are genetically determined and support the suggestion that thebehavior patterns are the product of social learning and, therefore, can be considered cultural.

CHARTING CULTURAL VARIATION IN CHIMPANZEES

Cultural variation among chimpanzee communities or unit-groups at nine long-term study sites was charted through a systematic, collaborative procedure in which the directors of the sites first agreed

Cultural assemblages show nested structure in humans and chimpanzees but not orangutans

A significant degree of nestedness is found in human and chimpanzee cultural repertoires, but not for orangutans, suggesting that the traits required for sequential cultural evolution first appeared in the last common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans.

Are behavioral differences among wild chimpanzee communities genetic or cultural? An assessment using tool-use data and phylogenetic methods.

This study refutes the genetic hypothesis and provides further evidence that patterns of behavior in chimpanzees are the product of social learning and therefore meet the main condition for culture.

Demographic influences on the behavior of chimpanzees

How the demographic context affects the possible range of behavioral options open to individuals and ultimately contributes to the explanation of behavioral diversity in chimpanzees is illustrated.

The extent of cultural variation between adjacent chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) communities; a microecological approach.

It is suggested that transmission of cultural knowledge plays a role in determining insectivory prey behavior, independent of ecological conditions, which can lead to large numbers of cultural diversification between neighboring chimpanzee communities.

Panthropology of the Fourth Chimpanzee: A Contribution to Cultural Primatology

The prevalence of elementary technology may indicate that the material culture of Gashaka chimpanzees is most closely related to core cultural tendencies of Central African populations of these apes, which have to cope with high concentrations of anti-feedant defenses of plants against consumption.
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