Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation.

@article{Markus1991CultureAT,
  title={Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation.},
  author={Hazel Rose Markus and Shinobu Kitayama},
  journal={Psychological Review},
  year={1991},
  volume={98},
  pages={224-253}
}
People in different cultures have strikingly different construals of the self, of others, and of the interdependence of the 2. These construals can influence, and in many cases determine, the very nature of individual experience, including cognition, emotion, and motivation. Many Asian cultures have distinct conceptions of individuality that insist on the fundamental relatedness of individuals to each other. The emphasis is on attending to others, fitting in, and harmonious interdependence with… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

A hierarchy within: on the motivational and emotional primacy of the individual self
Extend to someone the seemingly straightforward invitation "So, tell me about yourself," and prepare for a narrative barrage of traits, interests, roles, and relationships. To say the least, the
Cultures and Selves
  • H. Markus, S. Kitayama
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Perspectives on psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science
  • 2010
TLDR
It is proposed that a self is the “me” at the center of experience—a continually developing sense of awareness and agency that guides actions and takes shape as the individual, both brain and body, becomes attuned to various environments.
Culture, Self-construal and Social Cognition: Evidence from Cross-Cultural and Priming Studies
Members of different cultures vary in basic social psychological processes, such as value orientation, attitudes, attitude-behavior relations, person perception and attribution of observed behavior.
Models of the self: self-construals and gender.
TLDR
Recognition of the interdependent self-construal as a possible alternative conception of the self may stimulate new investigations into the ways the self influences a person's thinking, feeling, and behaving.
Self-Construal and Identity
Self-concept is essential to the description of human beings. Authors from individualistic cultures have offered different definitions and measures of the self, sharing the idea that the self is a
HOW SELF-CONSTRUAL SHAPES EMOTION : CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN THE FEELING OF PRIDE
Previous research has shown that members of collectivist cultures usually experience less pride than do members of individualist cultures. The current study suggests that such differences are due to
Culture, Self-Construal, and Leisure Theory and Practice
According to Markus and Kitayama (1991), although European North Americans are more likely to have independent self-construals (and therefore to value being unique, expressing one's inner attributes,
CULTURE, SELF, AND SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING: CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL CHANGE PERSPECTIVES
Culture serves as a major force shaping the way people conceptualize the self, think about happiness, and cope with difficulties and upheavals in life. The present paper starts with a conceptual
CULTURE, SELF, AND SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING: CULTURAL PSYCHIKIGICAL AND SOCIAL CHANGE PERSPECTIVES
Culture serves as a major force shaping the way people conceptualize the self, think about happiness, and cope with difficulties and upheavals in life. The present paper starts with a conceptual
Culture, religion, and the underlying value dimensions of the metapersonal self-construal
The metapersonal self-construal (MPS) is presented in the context of a three-factor model of self-construal that is grounded in the literature on culture and values. The MPS is an understanding of
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 273 REFERENCES
Gender and individualistic vs. collectivist bases for notions about the self
This article provides a critique of traditional psychological theories of the self that emphasize autonomy, separation, and independence, and ignore the inherently social character of the self
An empirical investigation of self-attitudes.
A LTHOUGH the self has long been the central concept in the symbolic interaction approach to social psychology, little if anything has been done to employ it directly in empirical research. There are
Five kinds of self‐knowledge
Abstract Self‐knowledge is based on several different forms of information, so distinct that each one essentially establishes a different ‘self. The ecological self is the self as directly perceived
Gender and Thought: The Role of the Self-Concept
In the continuing analysis of sex and gender differences, there is a growing awareness of the possibility of fundamental differences in how women and men perceive themselves and their worlds, in how
Individualism and Collectivism: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Self-Ingroup Relationships
The individualism and collectivism constructs are theoretically analyzed and linked to certain hypothesized consequences (social behaviors, health indices). Study 1 explores the meaning of these
Public and private self-consciousness: Assessment and theory.
A scale was constructed to assess individual differences in self-consciou sness. Norms and test-retest reliability are presented. Factor analysis of the scale revealed that self-consciousness has
The Self and Social Behavior in Differing Cultural Contexts
Three aspects of the self(private, public, collective) with different probabilities in different kinds of social environments were sampled. Three dimensions of cultural variation
Does the Concept of the Person Vary Cross-Culturally?
Our concern in this essay is with other people’s conceptions of the person and ideas about the self. Our aim is to interpret a widespread mode of social thought often referred to as concrete,
Culture theory : essays on mind, self, and emotion
Preview: a colloquy of culture theorists Richard A. Shweder Part I. Culture Theory: An Introduction 1. Anthropology's romantic rebellion against the enlightenment, or there's more to thinking than
SELF-DEPRECATIVE TENDENCIES IN SELF EVALUATION THROUGH SOCIAL COMPARISON
Three experiments based on Schwartz and Smith (1976) 's research were made, trying to explore the cultural differences of the process of self-evaluation. According to their findings, the greater the
...
1
2
3
4
5
...