Culture and systems of thought: holistic versus analytic cognition.

  title={Culture and systems of thought: holistic versus analytic cognition.},
  author={Richard E. Nisbett and K. Peng and Incheol Choi and Ara Norenzayan},
  journal={Psychological review},
  volume={108 2},
The authors find East Asians to be holistic, attending to the entire field and assigning causality to it, making relatively little use of categories and formal logic, and relying on "dialectical" reasoning, whereas Westerners are more analytic, paying attention primarily to the object and the categories to which it belongs and using rules, including formal logic, to understand its behavior. The 2 types of cognitive processes are embedded in different naive metaphysical systems and tacit… 

Two Modes of Thinking: Evidence from Cross-Cultural Psychology

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Are There Cross-Cultural Differences in Reasoning ?

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It is concluded that any good account of social cognition must have the conceptual resources to explain how culture affects the authors' understanding of psychological states, and that this explanandum should not be an after-thought but instead a guiding feature for those accounts.

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Chinese ways of dealing with seeming contradictions result in a dialectical or compromise approach—retaining basic elements of opposing perspectives by seeking a "middle way." On the other hand,

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Growing cross-cultural evidence suggests that East Asians are less likely to show the correspondence bias, or a preference for explanations of behavior in terms of traits, dispositions, or other

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Culture and development of everyday social explanation.

  • J. G. Miller
  • Psychology
    Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1984
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