Culture, Self-Discrepancies, and Self-Satisfaction

@article{Heine1999CultureSA,
  title={Culture, Self-Discrepancies, and Self-Satisfaction},
  author={Steven J. Heine and Darrin R. Lehman},
  journal={Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin},
  year={1999},
  volume={25},
  pages={915 - 925}
}
In contrast to the reliable effects observed with North Americans, research with Japanese has failed to detect self-enhancing biases. The authors considered the possibility that, owing to the need to adapt themselves to others’ expectations, Japanese are more critical of themselves than are North Americans. A comparison of actual-ideal self-discrepancies indeed revealed larger discrepancies for Japanese than for either European or Asian Canadians. Moreover, the magnitude of the cultural… 

Tables from this paper

Interjudge Agreement, Self-Enhancement, and Liking: Cross-Cultural Divergences
The authors investigated whether the lower self-enhancement found among Japanese is due to them being more accurate in their self-perceptions than Americans. Japanese and American participants were
Beyond Self-Presentation: Evidence for Self-Criticism among Japanese
Although a robust finding in cross-cultural research is that Japanese exhibit less self-enhancement than North Americans, all of these studies have employed questionnaire measures susceptible to
Implicit-Explicit Differences in Self-Enhancement for Americans and Japanese
Past research on cross-cultural psychology has shown that North Americans have self-enhancing attitudes, evaluating themselves more favorably than others, including friends. The present research
Self-enhancement in Japan and America
North Americans view themselves in more positive terms than they view most other people. In the present paper, we report three studies showing that this bias is also found in Japan. For highly valued
Culture and Positive Illusions in Close Relationships: How My Relationships Are Better than Yours
Although routinely observed among North Americans, self-enhancing biases have been elusive in studies conducted with Japanese. The authors conducted two studies of relationship-serving biases (RSBs)
Cultural Differences in Self-Evaluation
The authors investigated compensatory self-enhancement in Japanese and Canadian university students. Research has revealed that when North Americans publicly discover a weakness in one self domain,
Cultural differences in self- and other-evaluations and well-being: a study of European and Asian Canadians.
TLDR
The results suggest that North American culture encourages positive biases in self- and other-perceptions that influence self-ratings of life satisfaction but have a much weaker effect on informant ratings of life Satisfaction.
When Ideals Are Too "Far Off": Physical Self-Ideal Discrepancy and Body Dissatisfaction in Japan
  • R. Kowner
  • Psychology
    Genetic, social, and general psychology monographs
  • 2004
TLDR
The results suggest that culture has a significant role in shaping collective body images in Japan and that a broader conceptualization of physical self-ideal discrepancy may better explain divergent levels of body satisfaction across cultures.
What is the relation between cultural orientation and socially desirable responding?
TLDR
It is proposed that people with both types of cultural orientations or backgrounds engage in desirable responding, albeit in distinct ways, and culturally relevant goals served by these distinct types of socially desirable responding are proposed.
Cultural variation in the motivational standards of self-enhancement and self-criticism among bicultural Asian American and Anglo American students.
  • Akane Zusho
  • Psychology
    International journal of psychology : Journal international de psychologie
  • 2008
TLDR
The purpose of the present study was to examine the assumption that independent and interdependent self-construals are associated with the motivational standards of self-enhancement and self-criticism, respectively and to discuss implications for the work on self-representations, motivation, and acculturation.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 104 REFERENCES
The cultural construction of self-enhancement: an examination of group-serving biases.
TLDR
Comparisons of group-serving biases across European Canadian, Asian Canadian, and Japanese students suggest that cultural differences in enhancement biases are robust, generalizing to individuals' evaluations of their groups.
Cultural variation in unrealistic optimism: Does the West feel more vulnerable than the East?
Levels of unrealistic optimism were compared for Canadians (a culture typical of an independent construal of self) and Japanese (a culture typical of an interdependent construal of self). Across 2
Is there a universal need for positive self-regard?
TLDR
The need for positive self-regard, as it is currently conceptualized, is not a universal, but rather is rooted in significant aspects of North American culture.
Divergent consequences of success and failure in japan and north america: an investigation of self-improving motivations and malleable selves.
TLDR
Self-enhancing and self-improving motivations were investigated across cultures and revealed that self- Improving motivations are specific to the tasks on which one receives feedback.
The relationship between depression and self-concept discrepancy among different generations of Japanese-American women.
TLDR
The present findings revealed that self-concept discrepancy and depression are related positively for certain generations, but not others, and point out the ethnocentricity of one of the most supported notions in Western psychology (i.e., the relationship between self- Concept discrepancy and maladjustment).
Accuracy and bias in self-perception: individual differences in self-enhancement and the role of narcissism.
TLDR
Although the self-perceptions showed convergent validity with the staff criterion, Ss were less accurate when judging themselves than when judging their peers; however, this general self-enhancement effect was dwarfed by substantial individual differences, which ranged from self- enhancement to self-diminishment bias and were strongly related to four measures of narcissism.
Depression and self-enhancement among Japanese and American students.
TLDR
It is proposed that, relative to the Americans, Japanese students had a negative self-schema that led to higher depression and lower self-enhancement.
Individual and collective processes in the construction of the self: self-enhancement in the United States and self-criticism in Japan.
TLDR
In support of the collective constructionist theory of the self, 2 studies showed that American situations are relatively conducive to self-enhancement and American people are relatively likely to engage in self- enhancement and, second, that Japanese situations are comparatively conducive toSelf-criticism and Japanese people are comparatively likely to engaging in self -criticism.
Issues of Validity and Reliability in the Use of Real-Ideal Discrepancy Scores to Measure Self-Regard
The validity and reliability of real-ideal discrepancy scores as measures of selfregard are investigated using a large sample of adolescent subjects. Real selfratings are found to be superior to
Self-Discrepancy : A Theory Relating Self and Affect
  • E.
  • Psychology
This article presents a theory of how different types of discrepancies between self-state representations are related to different kinds of emotional vulnerabilities. One domain of the self (actual;
...
1
2
3
4
5
...