Culture, Self-Discrepancies, and Self-Satisfaction

  title={Culture, Self-Discrepancies, and Self-Satisfaction},
  author={Steven J. Heine and Darrin R. Lehman},
  journal={Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin},
  pages={915 - 925}
In contrast to the reliable effects observed with North Americans, research with Japanese has failed to detect self-enhancing biases. The authors considered the possibility that, owing to the need to adapt themselves to others’ expectations, Japanese are more critical of themselves than are North Americans. A comparison of actual-ideal self-discrepancies indeed revealed larger discrepancies for Japanese than for either European or Asian Canadians. Moreover, the magnitude of the cultural… 

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