Cue strength as a moderator of the testing effect: the benefits of elaborative retrieval.

@article{Carpenter2009CueSA,
  title={Cue strength as a moderator of the testing effect: the benefits of elaborative retrieval.},
  author={Shana K. Carpenter},
  journal={Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition},
  year={2009},
  volume={35 6},
  pages={
          1563-9
        }
}
  • Shana K. Carpenter
  • Published 1 November 2009
  • Psychology
  • Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
The current study explored the elaborative retrieval hypothesis as an explanation for the testing effect: the tendency for a memory test to enhance retention more than restudying. In particular, the retrieval process during testing may activate elaborative information related to the target response, thereby increasing the chances that activation of any of this information will facilitate later retrieval of the target. In a test of this view, participants learned cue-target pairs, which were… 
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Across two experiments, final-test performance was greater following practice testing than following restudy only, and this memorial advantage was greater with long-lag than with short-lag practice testing, which provided consistent evidence for the ERH.
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  • Shana K. Carpenter
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 2011
TLDR
Those who learned cue-target pairs through testing and were later tested on these items were more likely to recall the correct target from the semantic mediator on a final cued recall test and demonstrate that semantically related information may be 1 type of natural mediator that is activated during testing.
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TLDR
This result shows that the processes which allow items to be more memorable over time share qualitatively similar neural correlates with the processes that relate to successful retrieval at test, which supports the notion that testing is more beneficial than restudying on memory performance over time.
Testing enhances memory for context
Mnemonic benefits of retrieval practice at short retention intervals
TLDR
This study focused on potential test-induced retention benefits for brief retention intervals on the order of minutes and tens of seconds in a bifurcated item-distribution model.
Mechanisms behind the testing effect: an empirical investigation of retrieval practice in meaningful learning
TLDR
It is found that testing helps learning when learners must invest substantial mental effort, as suggested by the elaborative retrieval theory, and for educational purposes, testing tasks should be assigned that require the learners to invest substantialmental effort.
The impacts of the processing levels on testing effect
The testing effect refers to that retrieval practice enhances memory retention more than restudying does. A few previous studies have demonstrated that initial tests could improve memory by
The Influence of Retrieval Practice Versus Delayed Judgments of Learning on Memory: Resolving a Memory-Metamemory Paradox.
TLDR
Differences in the dynamics of retrieval for practice tests versus delayed JOLs are responsible for the memory-metamemory paradox, and participants spent less time to make J OLs than to retrieve responses.
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