Properties and primary structure of a thermostable l-malate dehydrogenase from Archaeoglobus fulgidus
Malate dehydrogenase from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius has been purified 240-fold to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity. The enzyme shows a specific activity of 277 U/mg and crystallizes readily. The relative molecular mass of the native enzyme is estimated as 128,500 by ultracentrifugation. After cross-linking a relative molecular mass of 134,000 is found by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. Malate dehydrogenase from S. acidocaldarius is composed of four subunits of identical size with a relative molecular mass of 34,000. Active-enzyme sedimentation in the analytical ultracentrifuge indicates that the tetramer is the catalytically active species. Kinetic studies in the direction of oxaloacetate reduction showed a Km for NADH of 4.1 microM and a Km for oxaloacetate of 52 microM. Oxaloacetate exhibits substrate inhibition at higher concentrations, L-malate, NAD and NADP were found to be product inhibitors. The enzymatic activity is inhibited by 2-oxoglutarate but not by the adenosine nucleotides AMP, ADP and ATP. Only low activity is detected in the direction of malate oxidation. Malate dehydrogenase from S. acidocaldarius utilizes both NADH and NADPH to reduce oxaloacetate. The enzyme shows A-side stereospecificity for both nicotinamide dinucleotides.