A trypsin-like serine protease from Streptomyces erythraeus (abbreviated as SET) has been crystallized at pH 7, which is within its active pH range. The crystal structure of SET has been solved by molecular replacement using the atomic model of Streptomyces griseus trypsin (SGT), which is 37% homologous with SET, and refined to the crystallographic R factor of 0.199 for 15,878 reflections with Fo/sigma(F) > 3 between 7 and 1.9 A resolution. The final model of SET contains 1,619 protein atoms and 97 water molecules. No Ca2+ ion is present in SET apparently because (i) the two carboxylate groups from two Glu residues, which bind a Ca2+ ion in bovine trypsin (BT) or SGT, have disappeared; and (ii) a guanidino group from an Arg residue is unfavorably present in the potential binding region. There is an unusual type II beta-turn in which the third residue is Asp instead of Gly. This Asp residue is the only non-Gly residue significantly outside the allowed regions in the Ramachandran map. The three-dimensional structure of SET is essentially the same as those of other trypsins of mammalian origin. The 211 C alpha atoms of SET exhibit an r.m.s. deviation of 1.16 A with equivalent atoms of BT, and the 208 equivalent C alpha atoms between SET and SGT exhibit an r.m.s. deviation of 1.09 A. The large deviations in C alpha positions between SET and BT or between SET and SGT are mainly observed in the first domain. The conformations of the side-chains of the catalytic triad are mutually similar to each other in these three proteases. Each of the chi 1 torsion angles of the three residues is distributed within +/- 5 degrees from each corresponding mean value. The hydrogen bond distances related to the side-chains in the triad coincide fairly well, though the relative disposition of the side-chains differs by 0.1-0.6 A among SET, BT, and SGT. The hydrogen bond network concerned with Ser(195), Asp(189), and water molecules in the substrate binding pocket differs from that in BT or SGT.