Cryptococcosis in children with AIDS.

  title={Cryptococcosis in children with AIDS.},
  author={Jacobo Abadi and Sharon Nachman and Amy Beth Kressel and Liise-Anne Pirofski},
  journal={Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America},
  volume={28 2},
  • J. Abadi, S. Nachman, L. Pirofski
  • Published 1 February 1999
  • Medicine
  • Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
We compiled the clinical and immunologic features of Cryptococcus neoformans infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children from 1985 to 1996 in a retrospective case series. Thirty cases of cryptococcosis were identified. These children had a median age of 9.8 years, a median CD4+ cell count of 54/microL at the time of diagnosis, and either a culture positive for C. neoformans or cryptococcal antigen in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. Sixty-three percent of the cases occurred… 

Cryptococcosis in children.

Cryptococcosis in HIV-infected children.

It is concluded that cryptococcal meningitis was the most common clinical presentation of cryptococcosis among HIV-infected children.

Epidemiology of Cryptococcal Infection in Hospitalized Children

The majority of pediatric cryptococcosis occurred in non–HIV-infected patients, but patients with non-CM were more likely to receive therapies not supported by these guidelines, and most patients had other immunocompromising medical conditions.

Serologic evidence for Cryptococcus neoformans infection in early childhood.

The results suggest that the low incidence of symptomatic cryptococcal disease in children with AIDS is not a result of lack of exposure to C neoformans, and provide both indirect and direct evidence of C neo formans infection in immunocompetent children.

Analyses of Pediatric Isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans from South Africa

Overall, these pediatric isolates exhibited high genotypic diversity, including a relatively large percentage of diploids and the rarely reported MAT a mating type, which is similar to those obtained from 86 adult patients during the same period.

Fatal case of cryptococcal meningitis and pneumonia in HIV-infected child-case report

While disease is not common in children, it remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality, and among pediatric patients incidence of cryptococcal meningitis relatively rare and reported in range 0,85-2,97%.

Treatment Recommendations Treating Disease

  • Medicine, Biology
  • 2013
During the pre-cART era, most cases of cryptococcosis in HIV-infected children occurred in those aged 6 through 12 years and in those with CD4 T lymphocyte (CD4) cell counts Panel’s Recommendations.

Cryptococcosis in Africa

The epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical manifestations, treatment, and prognosis of cryptococcal disease in HAART-treated patients with paradoxical immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), and the evolutionary relationships among African strains of Cryptococcus and their global ancestors are reviewed.

Cryptococcus neoformans meningoencephalitis in African children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in African children presents acutely or subacutely, can have a fulminant picture and is consistent with progressive meningoencesphalitis.



Cryptococcosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children.

Cryptococcosis is an infrequent yet treatable opportunistic infection of advanced pediatric AIDS that may present with subtle manifestations and warrants careful consideration in the evaluation of febrile HIV-infected children.


A spectrum of EC is indicated in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus infection ranging from fulminant, fatal fungemia to chronic meningitis and fever of unknown origin, including the role of fluconazole, warrants further study.

Cryptococcal meningitis in patients with AIDS.

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  • Medicine, Biology
    The Journal of infectious diseases
  • 1988
The Cryptococcus has become a major cause of meningitis in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the expression of cryptococcal infection in this population of patients

Cryptococcal meningitis and AIDS.

  • W. Powderly
  • Medicine, Biology
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • 1993
In this AIDS commentary Dr. William G. Powderly clearly outlines the progress made through clinical investigations and the problems that remain to be resolved about cryptococcal meningitis.

Infections with Cryptococcus neoformans in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

It is concluded that the addition of flucytosine to amphotericin neither enhances survival nor prevents relapse, but long-term suppressive therapy appears to benefit these patients.

Cryptococcal disease in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Diagnostic features and outcome of treatment.

It is suggested that maintenance therapy with amphotericin B may be needed to prevent relapse in patients with AIDS.

Cryptococcosis in the era of AIDS--100 years after the discovery of Cryptococcus neoformans

Clinical concepts are presented that relate to the distinctive features of cryptococcosis in patients with AIDS and the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Cryptococcus neoformans in AIDS patients.

Characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus-infected children at the time of death: an experience in the 1990s.

Compared with children who died in 1990, HIV-infected children who die in 1996 were significantly older, more lymphopenic and more likely to have a greater number of organ system involvements and to have received antiviral therapy and antimicrobial prophylaxis.

The ecology of Cryptococcus neoformans and the epidemiology of cryptococcosis.

  • S. Levitz
  • Medicine, Biology
    Reviews of infectious diseases
  • 1991
The ecology of Cryptococcus neoformans and the epidemiology of cryptococcosis are reviewed and it is presumed that most people can mount adequate host defenses upon exposure to the organism.

Epidemiology of pediatric Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection in the United States

If cases of HIV infection acquired from blood transfusions in the United States occurred before donor‐screening practices were implemented in March 1985, children born to HIV‐infected mothers will need to be identified early and monitored appropriately for CD4+ cell counts to determine the need for prophylaxis.