Cryptococcosis is a systemic fungal disease and meningeal or meningoencephalitis involvement is the most serious complication. This is a retrospective analysis of 80 patients admitted from December 1983 to October 1985 (30 cases) and June 1987 to December 1988 (50 cases) in hospital of Bujumbura, Burundi, Central Africa. All patients have an AIDS. Clinically, the meningeal and meningoencephalitis attack prevails in 87% cases. The diagnosis in our study is essentially based on the examination of the CRL. Before the new antifungals, the treatment involved the association of amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine, during 6 to 8 weeks. This treatment was badly tolerated and the second falls, when the therapy was stopped, were frequent. Presently, the fluconazole is the best treatment of this affection (ailment?): it enables maintenance therapy for a disease in which the risks of recurrence and reinfection by the environment are not negligible in Africa.