Cryptocash, cryptocurrencies, and cryptocontracts

@article{Koblitz2016CryptocashCA,
  title={Cryptocash, cryptocurrencies, and cryptocontracts},
  author={Neal Koblitz and Alfred Menezes},
  journal={Designs, Codes and Cryptography},
  year={2016},
  volume={78},
  pages={87-102}
}
One of the central challenges for mathematical cryptography is to create a payment system that provides the advantages of cash in a digital world. In this expository article we describe two very different solutions to this problem. The first is an elliptic-curve-based version of a construction of Brands, and the second is Bitcoin. We also discuss a generalization of Bitcoin that supports peer-to-peer contracts. 
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