Crypsis versus intimidation—anti-predation defence in three closely related butterflies

  title={Crypsis versus intimidation—anti-predation defence in three closely related butterflies},
  author={Adrian Vallin and Sven Jakobsson and Johan Lind and Christer Wiklund},
  journal={Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology},
Butterflies that hibernate exhibit particularly efficient defence against predation. A first line of defence is crypsis, and most hibernating butterflies are leaf mimics. When discovered, some species have a second line of defence; the peacock, I. io, when attacked by a predator flicks its wings open exposing large eyespots and performs an intimidating threat display. Here we test the hypothesis that butterflies relying solely on leaf mimicking and butterflies with an intimidating wing pattern… 
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  • Environmental Science
    The Journal of animal ecology
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