Cryotherapy in sports medicine

@article{Swenson1996CryotherapyIS,
  title={Cryotherapy in sports medicine},
  author={Chelsie M. Swenson and Leif Sw{\"a}rd and J{\'o}n Karlsson},
  journal={Scandinavian Journal of Medicine \& Science in Sports},
  year={1996},
  volume={6}
}
The use of cryotherapy, i.e. the application of cold for the treatment of injury or disease, is widespread in sports medicine today. It is an established method when treating acute soft tissue injuries, but there is a discrepancy between the scientific basis for cryotherapy and clinical studies. Various methods such as ice packs, ice towels, ice massage, gel packs, refrigerant gases and inflatable splints can be used. Cold is also used to reduce the recovery time as part of the rehabilitation… Expand
The cold truth: the role of cryotherapy in the treatment of injury and recovery from exercise.
TLDR
To limit the proliferation of secondary tissue damage that occurs in the hours after an injury or a strenuous exercise bout, it is imperative that cryotherapy be applied in abundance within the first few hours of structural damage. Expand
Effects of Joint Cryotherapy on Muscle Function
TLDR
It is found that the existing scientific evidence is insufficient to conclude whether this modality is actually effective in improving clinical outcomes such as reduced pain and swelling, improved function, and quicker return to participation in normal activity following acute soft tissue injury. Expand
The effects of cryotherapy on proprioception, indices of muscle damage and on intramuscular, skin and core temperature
TLDR
It is suggested that knee JPS is not reduced following CWI or WBC, and WBC appears to be ineffective in alleviating muscle soreness or enhancing muscle force recovery when administered 24 hours after eccentric exercise. Expand
Cryotherapy for acute ankle sprains: a randomised controlled study of two different icing protocols.
TLDR
Intermittent cryotherapy applications may enhance the therapeutic effect of ice in pain relief after acute soft tissue injury, and be used in addition to standard cryotherapy treatment protocols for acute ankle sprains. Expand
Cryotherapy for acute ankle sprains: a randomised controlled study of two different icing protocols
TLDR
Intermittent applications may enhance the therapeutic effect of ice in pain relief after acute soft tissue injury, and this work suggests that intermittent cryotherapy applications are most effective at reducing tissue temperature to optimal therapeutic levels. Expand
Thermotherapy of Pain, Trauma, and Inflammatory and Degenerative Rheumatic Diseases
TLDR
The currently available data about temperature effects on clinical, biochemical, and molecular parameters underlying inflammatory and immunological processes, although fragmentary, are encouraging enough to expect improvement of thermotherapeutic applications from further experimental and clinical efforts to understand how defined pathological processes are affected by local thermal stimulations. Expand
Effect of cryotherapy on joint position sense An experimental study
TLDR
It is concluded that elasto gel cold wrap application is more effective after DOMS, which improves the joint position sense thereby decreasing the undue effect of DOMS. Expand
Don't Lose Your Cool With Cryotherapy: The Application of Phase Change Material for Prolonged Cooling in Athletic Recovery and Beyond
TLDR
Data showed that using 15°C PCM to prolong the duration of cooling successfully reduced strength loss and soreness following exercise, which can enhance recovery following exercise and give athletes a competitive advantage. Expand
The Use of Ice in the Treatment of Acute Soft-Tissue Injury
TLDR
There was little evidence to suggest that the addition of ice to compression had any significant effect, but this was restricted to treatment of hospital inpatients and there was no evidence of an optimal mode or duration of treatment. Expand
Evaluation of the cooling efficacy of different equine leg cooling methods
  • D. Marlin
  • Medicine
  • Comparative Exercise Physiology
  • 2019
TLDR
A repeatable laboratory method for determining cooling efficacy was developed using a metal flask, which allows different methods of cooling to be compared without the difficulties encountered in standardisation in live horses. Expand
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References

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TLDR
Results of studies on cold and blood flow vary considerably, however it appears that blood flow increases with superficial cold application and decreases when cold is applied to large skin surface areas, which is consistent on the effects on neuromuscular and pain processes. Expand
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TLDR
Over the years there has been much confusion about the use of ice in the treatment of acute and chronic injuries, partly due to the report by Lewis in 1930 of the 'hunting response' of the circulation to tissue cooling. Expand
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TLDR
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TLDR
It is concluded that ice may be useful for a variety of musculoskeletal pains, yet the evidence for its efficacy should be established more convincingly. Expand
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TLDR
The effect of long-term cryotherapy is a decrease in temperature of sufficient magnitude and duration resulting in a reduction of joint metabolism, thereby of the activity of cartilage degrading enzymes and can be recommended using cold packs of -20 to -23 degrees C for 30 minutes every 5 to 6 hours in acute rheumatic arthritis, posttraumatic oedema and in the acute therapy of sports injuries. Expand
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TLDR
Although no clear-cut clinical directives can be made from the data, it does appear that too much cold or too long application may be deleterious and discretion in the utilization of cold therapy is warranted. Expand
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  • Medicine
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TLDR
The conclusions are that the results of the studies reviewed were consistent in describing reductions in musculoskeletal pain, spasm, connective tissue distensibility, intramuscular temperature, nerve conduction velocity, and spasticity (except the initial seconds of application). Expand
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TLDR
The Cryo/Cuff system appears to be an effective modality in the facilitation of the postoperative recovery process. Expand
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TLDR
The data suggest that during cryokinetics, exercise causes the increased blood flow, and that cold applications function only to allow active motion in a painful joint. Expand
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