Cryo-electron microscopy of viruses

  title={Cryo-electron microscopy of viruses},
  author={Marc Adrian and Jacques Dubochet and Jean Lepault and Alasdair W. McDowall},
Thin vitrified layers of unfixed, unstained and unsupported virus suspensions can be prepared for observation by cryo-electron microscopy in easily controlled conditions. The viral particles appear free from the kind of damage caused by dehydration, freezing or adsorption to a support that is encountered in preparing biological samples for conventional electron microscopy. Cryo-electron microscopy of vitrified specimens offers possibilities for high resolution observations that compare… Expand
Cryo electron microscopy of spherical viruses: An application to rotaviruses☆
Abstract Cryo electron microscopy of frozen, hydrated specimens coupled with computer image processing has emerged as a powerful tool for studying 3-dimensional structures of spherical virusesExpand
Study of vitrified, unstained frozen tissue sections by cryoimmunoelectron microscopy.
A novel approach to high-resolution ultrastructural analysis of cells and tissues based on the preparation of ultrathin frozen sections of fixed tissues, followed by their embedding on the grid in a layer of vitrified ice, and direct observation with a cryoelectron microscope is described. Expand
Cryo-electron microscopy of vitrified specimens.
Water is the most abundant component of biological material, but it is systematically excluded from conventional electron microscopy. This is because water evaporates rapidly under the vacuumExpand
Cryo-electron microscopy of vitrified insect flight muscle.
Frozen hydrated sections of vitrified unstained insect flight muscle in the rigor and relaxed states were studied by cryo-electron microscopy and it seems that the preserved structure of the relaxed structure seems better than in freeze-etched replicas. Expand
Cryo-Electron Microscopy of Viruses
Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is a structural technique that images biological macromolecules in native-like conditions, and has been widely applied to the study of viruses. Virus structuresExpand
Electron microscopy of frozen-hydrated biological material
The electron microscopy of frozen-hydrated specimens has the potential to allow biological material to be examined in conditions very similar to the native state, and so has excited considerableExpand
Observation of Bacteriophage Ultrastructure by Cryo-electron Microscopy.
This work has shown that preservation of bacteriophages in a thin layer of fast frozen buffer has proven to be a most convenient preparation method for obtaining images using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Expand
Contrast of biological cryosections in scanning transmission electron microscopy
Ultrathin (70–100 nm thick) frozen‐hydrated cryosections of yeast cells were studied by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Generally, the contrast is very poor in brightfield andExpand
1 Cryopreparation of Microorganisms for Electron Microscopy
This chapter describes the cryopreparation of microorganisms for electron microscopy by means of cryofixation-based preparative procedures, which is mandatory for the correlation of structure and function at the ultrastructural level. Expand
Cryoelectron microscopy of vitrified Sendai virions.
Morphology of vitrified Sendai virions was studied by transmission type electron microscopy, indicating pleomorphism of Sendaivirions in size but not in shape. Expand


Electron microscopy of frozen hydrated sections of vitreous ice and vitrified biological samples
The preparation and high resolution observation of frozen hydrated thin sections has been studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and STEM) on model systems, including pure water, proteinExpand
Electron microscopy of frozen biological suspensions
It is shown that optimum structural preservation is obtained from a thin, quench‐frozen film with the bulk aqueous medium in the vitreous state, and frozen‐hydrated, freeze-dried or sugar embedded crystals can withstand a three‐ to four‐fold increase in electron exposure for the same damage when compared with similar sugar‐embedded or freeze‐dried samples at room temperature. Expand
Freezing, sectioning and observation artefacts of frozen hydrated sections for electron microscopy
I N T R O D U C T I O N In a recent article we have shown that thin sections of vitrified biological samples can be prepared, transferred and observed under good conditions in the electron microscopeExpand
Projected structure of unstained, frozen‐hydrated T‐layer of Bacillus brevis.
It is shown that the contrast of T‐layer embedded in ice can be approximated to pure phase contrast. Expand
Electron microscopy of frozen water and aqueous solutions
Thin layers of pure water or aqueous solutions are frozen in the vitreous state or with the water phase in the form of hexagonal or cubic crystals, either by using a spray‐freezing method or byExpand
Electron Diffraction of Frozen, Hydrated Protein Crystals
High-resolution electron diffraction patterns have been obtained from frozen, hydrated catalase crystals to demonstrate the feasibility of using a frozen specimen hydration technique. The use ofExpand
The size of the bacteriophage T4 head in solution with comments about the dimension of virus particles as visualized by electron microscopy.
X-ray diffraction results permitting calculation of the radius of the bacteriophage T4 head in solution are reported and used in a quantitative discussion of the distortion artefacts caused by a number of electron microscope specimen preparation techniques. Expand
Beef liver catalase structure: interpretation of electron micrographs.
  • P. Unwin
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Journal of molecular biology
  • 1975
It is shown that the catalase platelets frequently examined by electron microscopists have the space group symmetry P212121 and contain four molecules in the orthorhombic unit cell. The cellExpand
Frozen aqueous suspensions
frozen aqueous suspensions can be observed under good conditions when the specimen is vitrified. The contrast then obtained from embedded particles is low but measurable. It can be quantitativelyExpand
Capsid geometry of bacteriophage T2: a freeze-etching study.
The bacteriophage capsid is constructed of two 5-fold symmetry end-caps based on T = 13 icosahedral symmetry, separated by a near-equatorial band of 20 additional capsomers. Expand