Crucible of Andean Civilization

  title={Crucible of Andean Civilization},
  author={Jonathan Haas and Winifred Creamer},
  journal={Current Anthropology},
  pages={745 - 775}
The focus of the development of the first complex, centralized societies on the coast of Peru between 3000 and 1800 BC was a portion of the coast known as the Norte Chico, where more than 30 large Late Archaic sites with monumental platform mounds, ceremonial plazas, and residential architecture have now been identified. Differing theories have been offered to explain the emergence of complex polities in this region. New settlement and radiocarbon data suggest an alternative theoretical model… 

The Temple of the Fishermen: Early Ceremonial Architecture at Gramalote, a Residential Settlement of the Second Millennium B.C., North Coast of Peru

ABSTRACT The archaeology of the Late Preceramic (3500–1800 b.c.) and Initial Periods (1800–800 b.c.) on the north coast of Peru is focused on monumental ceremonial buildings and little attention has

Pathways to Social Complexity in the Norte Chico Region of Peru

Over the past 20 years, archeological research in the Central Andes has identified the north central coast of Peru as an epicenter of early social complexity . Over the course of the Late Archaic

Ancient urban life at the Early Horizon center of Caylán, Peru

Abstract This article examines the development of urban forms of community organization on the north-central coast of Peru during the 1st millennium b.c. Recent mapping and excavations at the Early

Feasting with Zea Mays in the Middle and Late Formative North Coast of Peru

This work reports the presence of Zea mays microremains in three feasting episodes performed during the Middle and Late Formative Period in the North Coast of Peru. The remains of the Cerro Blanco de

Monumental architecture in mountain landscapes: the diy-geδ-bay sites of northern Cameroon

The DGB sites are complexes of dry-stone terraces and platforms in the Mandara Mountains of northern Cameroon. They constitute the earliest well-established evidence for human occupation of this

La tradición religioso-astronómica en Buena Vista

A maritime, rather than agricultural, foundation for civilization has been postulated for the central coast of Peru; the model has been subsequently modified in light of new evidence to include

Macabalaca: New Evidence of the Kotosh Religious Tradition in the Huarmey Valley, Peru

Rescue excavations at the site of Macabalaca (PV35-72) in the Huarmey Valley, Peru, identified a rectangular structure with niches on its walls and a floor with a central hearth. We present results

Cerro Lampay: Architectural Design and Human Interaction in the North Central Coast of Peru

Abstract Recent fieldwork concerning the late Preceramic/late Archaic period on the PeruvianNorth-Central Ccoast has revealed the existence of large architectural complexes, which scholars interpret

The Fortaleza Valley, Peru: Archaeological Investigation of Late Archaic Sites (3000–1800 BC)

Abstract Monumental architecture, including stepped pyramids, sunken circular plazas, and upright monoliths (huancas), has been identified at sites throughout the Norte Chico region along the coast

Painted origins: inscribed landscape histories in the Fortaleza pictograph style during the Andean, late pre-Hispanic period

ABSTRACT The headwaters of the Fortaleza River, Ancash, Peru are an understudied area, archaeologically. Seventeenth-century Spanish Colonial accounts from the region describe a general moiety




One of the cherished goals?some would call it the fatal Cleopatra? of anthropology is to explain the emer gence of civilization in early human communities. Anthropologists interest ed in this

The Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilization: A Reconsideration of the Evidence

  • J. Raymond
  • Environmental Science
    American Antiquity
  • 1981
Moseley's contention that coastal Peruvian civilization was founded on a maritime subsistence economy is challenged, and the evidence that he used to substantiate his claim is re-examined. It is

Power and the Emergence of Complex Polities in the Peruvian Preceramic

This chapter looks at the role of irrigation agriculture, warfare (lack thereof), and religion in the origins and development of the power relationship in an extraordinary early political system.

Early civilization in the Casma Valley, Peru

Since 1980 intensive archaeological investigations have been carried out at several early sites, occupied from late preceramic through early ceramic times (4150–2950b.p.), in the Casma Valley, Peru.

Subsistence Economies and the Origins of Andean Complex Societies

Recent arguments stating that marine resources were relatively unimportant in cultural developments on the coast of Peru during the Preceramic Period are incorrect on several counts. It is shown that

Of Maize and Men: A Critique of the Maritime Hypothesis of State Origins on the Coast of Peru

This paper examines the two alternative hypotheses of the maritime and agricultural foundations of state society on the coast of Peru, and by reference to limiting factors affecting the Peru Coastal Current, argues that coastal maritime groups never advanced beyond an egalitarian tribal stage.

The Formative Site of Las Haldas, Peru: Architecture, Chronology, and Economy

Abstract In 1958 and 1969 the Tokyo University expeditions excavated the Formative site of Las Haldas on the Peruvian coast as part of their multiyear investigation into the developmental processes

The Savannah River Chiefdoms: Political Change in the Late Prehistoric Southeast

This volume explores political changes in chiefdoms, specifically how complex chiefdoms emerge and collapse, and how this process - called cycling - can be examined using archaeological,

The Ascent of Chiefs: Cahokia and Mississippian Politics in Native North America

This ambitious book provides a theoretical explanation of how prehistoric Cahokia became a stratified society, and ultimately the pinnacle of Native American cultural achievement north of Mexico.

Aspero, Peru: A Reexamination of the Site and Its Implications

Abstract The large preceramic site of Aspero, on the central Peruvian coast, was explored in the past by Uhle and by Willey and Corbett; however, these investigators did not recognize the presence of