Gene Expression Profiling in the Thiamethoxam Resistant and Susceptible B-biotype Sweetpotato Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci
BACKGROUND The B-type Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) has become established in many regions in China, and neonicotinoids are extensively used to control this pest. Imidacloprid resistance in a laboratory-selected strain of B-type B. tabaci was characterised in order to provide the basis for recommending resistance management tactics. RESULTS The NJ-Imi strain of B-type B. tabaci was selected from the NJ strain with imidacloprid for 30 generations. The NJ-Imi strain exhibited 490-fold resistance to imidacloprid, high levels of cross-resistance to three other neonicotinoids, low levels of cross-resistance to monosultap, cartap and spinosad, but no cross-resistance to abamectin and cypermethrin. Imidacloprid resistance in the NJ-Imi strain was autosomal and semi-dominant. It is shown that enhanced detoxification mediated by cytochrome-P450-dependent monooxygenases contributes to imidacloprid resistance to some extent in the NJ-Imi strain. Results from synergist bioassays and cross-resistance patterns indicated that target-site insensitivity may be involved in imidacloprid resistance in the NJ-Imi strain of B. tabaci. CONCLUSION Although oxidative detoxification mediated by P450 monooxygenases is involved in imidacloprid resistance in the NJ-Imi strain of B-type B. tabaci, target-site modification as an additional resistance mechanism cannot be ruled out. Considering the high risk of cross-resistance, neonicotinoids should be regarded as a single group when implementing an insecticide rotation scheme in B. tabaci control.