Cross-examining dissociative identity disorder: Neuroimaging and etiology on trial

@article{Reinders2008CrossexaminingDI,
  title={Cross-examining dissociative identity disorder: Neuroimaging and etiology on trial},
  author={Antje A. Reinders},
  journal={Neurocase},
  year={2008},
  volume={14},
  pages={44 - 53}
}
Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is probably the most disputed of psychiatric diagnoses and of psychological forensic evaluations in the legal arena. The iatrogenic proponents assert that DID phenomena originate from psychotherapeutic treatment while traumagenic proponents state that DID develops after severe and chronic childhood trauma. In addition, DID that is simulated with malingering intentions, but not stimulated by psychotherapeutic treatment, may be called pseudogenic. With DID… 
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    Australasian psychiatry : bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
  • 2014
TLDR
This case review presents a retired psychiatrist with a history of DID to illustrate current thinking about the characteristics and aetiology of DID and argues for the importance of being aware of both personal and professional biases in the authors' own clinical practice.
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The Trauma Model of dissociative identity disorder posits that DID is etiologically related to chronic neglect and physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood but these two models have not been jointly tested in individuals with DID in an empirical manner.
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New and extended data analyses of a previously published H215O positron emission tomography imaging study of dissociative identity disorder offer important new supporting data for the trauma model of DID.
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References

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Three controversies about dissociative identity disorder
Three controversies about Dissociative Identity Disorder are discussed. First, is DID an artefact due to iatrogenic influences? The empirical evidence does not support such a conclusion, although
The sociocognitive model of dissociative identity disorder: a reexamination of the evidence.
TLDR
The author reexamines the evidence for the sociocognitive model of dissociative identity disorder and concludes that it is based on numerous false assumptions about the psychopathology, assessment, and treatment of DID.
The Persistence of Folly: A Critical Examination of Dissociative Identity Disorder. Part I. The Excesses of an Improbable Concept
  • A. Piper, H. Merskey
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Canadian journal of psychiatry. Revue canadienne de psychiatrie
  • 2004
TLDR
There is no proof for the claim that DID results from childhood trauma and the condition cannot be reliably diagnosed, and it is best understood as a culture-bound and often iatrogenic condition.
The Persistence of Folly: Critical Examination of Dissociative Identity Disorder. Part II. The Defence and Decline of Multiple Personality or Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • A. Piper, H. Merskey
  • Psychology
    Canadian journal of psychiatry. Revue canadienne de psychiatrie
  • 2004
TLDR
Because the diagnosis is unreliable, it is believed that US and Canadian courts cannot responsibly accept testimony in favour of DID and a guess is made about the condition's status over the next 10 years.
Degree of Somatoform and Psychological Dissociation in Dissociative Disorder Is Correlated with Reported Trauma
TLDR
Pathological dissociation was best predicted by early onset of reported intense, chronic and multiple traumatization, and physical and sexual trauma predicted somatoform dissociation, and psychological Dissociation predicted psychological dissociation.
An examination of the diagnostic validity of dissociative identity disorder.
Becoming one person: living with dissociative identity disorder.
TLDR
Historical and contemporary issues surrounding this particular mental health problem are clarified both through examining the literature and through narrative of the person's experience.
Psychobiological Characteristics of Dissociative Identity Disorder: A Symptom Provocation Study
Reply: The Persistence of Folly: A Critical Examination of Dissociative Identity Disorder
Dear Editor: This letter is in reply to Dr Piper's and Dr Merskey 's 2 papers on the "folly" of the concept of dissociative identity disorder (DID) (1,2). Psychiatrists are, of course, entitled to
Functional magnetic resonance imaging of personality switches in a woman with dissociative identity disorder.
TLDR
A volumetric study of the hippocampus in a patient with comorbid DID and PTSD for comparison with the literature on PTSD, and the results have been inconsistent and often mixed.
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