Crop management and agronomic context of the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.

@article{Champion2003CropMA,
  title={Crop management and agronomic context of the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.},
  author={G. T. Champion and Mike J. May and Stephen Bennett and David R. Brooks and Suzanne J. Clark and Roger E. Daniels and Les G Firbank and Alison J Haughton and Cathy Hawes and Matthew S. Heard and J. N. Perry and Zo{\"e} Randle and M. J. Rossall and Peter Rothery and Matthew P. Skellern and Rod J. Scott and Geoffrey R. Squire and M. R. Thomas},
  journal={Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences},
  year={2003},
  volume={358 1439},
  pages={
          1801-18
        }
}
  • G. Champion, M. May, +15 authors M. R. Thomas
  • Published 2003
  • Medicine
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
The Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops (GMHT) were conducted in the UK from 2000 to 2002 on beet (sugar and fodder), spring oilseed rape and forage maize. The management of the crops studied is described and compared with current conventional commercial practice. The distribution of field sites adequately represented the areas currently growing these crops, and the sample contained sites operated at a range of management intensities, including low intensity… Expand
Effects of successive seasons of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant maize cropping on weeds and invertebrates
TLDR
There was little evidence of effects being significantly more pronounced in the second year; any cumulative differences in above-ground biodiversity between GMHT and conventional cropping were too variable to be readily detected. Expand
On the rationale and interpretation of the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.
  • G. Squire, D. Brooks, +12 authors L. Firbank
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2003
TLDR
Evidence from experiments during the twentieth century is analysed to show that large changes in field management have affected sensitive groups in the biota by ca. Expand
Weeds in fields with contrasting conventional and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops. I. Effects on abundance and diversity.
  • M. Heard, C. Hawes, +10 authors M. Hill
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2003
TLDR
In all three crops, weed diversity was little affected by the treatment, except for transient effects immediately following herbicide application, which was not subsequently detectable in the seedbank. Expand
Predicting longer-term changes in weed populations under GMHT crop management
TLDR
The UK Farm Scale Evaluations (FSE) compared the effects on biodiversity of management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops and conventional crops over the shorter term and predicted weed seed populations decreased under conventional management and at a greater rate under GMHT. Expand
Weed and arthropod populations in conventional and genetically modified herbicide tolerant fodder beet fields
TLDR
In the long term reduced production of weed seeds in GMHT fields may deplete the weed flora if the GMHT strategy becomes widely adopted, and application of glyphosate earlier than recommended resulted in an extremely low weed diversity, density and biomass during the entire season. Expand
Ban on triazine herbicides likely to reduce but not negate relative benefits of GMHT maize cropping
TLDR
It is predicted that weed abundances under future conventional herbicide management to be considerably larger than that for atrazine used before weeds emerged, but still smaller than for the four FSE sites analysed that used only non-triazine herbicides. Expand
Management of genetically modified herbicide–tolerant sugar beet for spring and autumn environmental benefit
TLDR
The results show that altered management of GMHT sugar beet can provide alternative scenarios to those of the recent Farm Scale Evaluation trials, and can enhance weed seed banks and autumn bird food availability compared with conventional management, or provide early season benefits to invertebrates and nesting birds. Expand
Herbicide-resistant crops and weed resistance to herbicides.
TLDR
The adoption of genetically modified (GM) crops has increased dramatically during the last 3 years, and currently over 52 million hectares of GM crops are planted world-wide, which includes an estimated 33.3 million hectare of herbicide-resistant soybean. Expand
Invertebrate responses to the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant and conventional spring crops. I. Soil-surface-active invertebrates.
  • D. Brooks, D. Bohan, +30 authors M. J. Walker
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2003
TLDR
Differences between GMHT and conventional crop herbicide management had a significant effect on the capture of most surface-active invertebrate species and higher taxa tested in at least one crop, and these differences reflected the phenology and ecology of the invertebrates. Expand
Invertebrate responses to the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant and conventional spring crops. II. Within-field epigeal and aerial arthropods.
The effects of the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops on the abundances of aerial and epigeal arthropods were assessed in 66 beet, 68 maize and 67 spring oilseed rapeExpand
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References

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On the rationale and interpretation of the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.
  • G. Squire, D. Brooks, +12 authors L. Firbank
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2003
TLDR
Evidence from experiments during the twentieth century is analysed to show that large changes in field management have affected sensitive groups in the biota by ca. Expand
Weeds in fields with contrasting conventional and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops. I. Effects on abundance and diversity.
  • M. Heard, C. Hawes, +10 authors M. Hill
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2003
TLDR
In all three crops, weed diversity was little affected by the treatment, except for transient effects immediately following herbicide application, which was not subsequently detectable in the seedbank. Expand
An introduction to the Farm‐Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide‐tolerant crops
1. Several genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops have cleared most of the regulatory hurdles required for commercial growing in the United Kingdom. However, concerns have beenExpand
Weeds in fields with contrasting conventional and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops. II. Effects on individual species.
  • M. Heard, C. Hawes, +11 authors M. Hill
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2003
TLDR
For many species in beet and spring oilseed rape (19 out of 24 cases), seed densities were lower in the seedbank after GMHT cropping, which would result in large decreases in population densities of arable weeds. Expand
Invertebrate responses to the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant and conventional spring crops. I. Soil-surface-active invertebrates.
  • D. Brooks, D. Bohan, +30 authors M. J. Walker
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2003
TLDR
Differences between GMHT and conventional crop herbicide management had a significant effect on the capture of most surface-active invertebrate species and higher taxa tested in at least one crop, and these differences reflected the phenology and ecology of the invertebrates. Expand
Invertebrate responses to the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant and conventional spring crops. II. Within-field epigeal and aerial arthropods.
The effects of the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops on the abundances of aerial and epigeal arthropods were assessed in 66 beet, 68 maize and 67 spring oilseed rapeExpand
Invertebrates and vegetation of field margins adjacent to crops subject to contrasting herbicide regimes in the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.
  • D. Roy, D. Bohan, +11 authors L. Firbank
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2003
TLDR
The effects of management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops on adjacent field margins were assessed, with 24% fewer butterflies in margins of GMHT spring oilseed rape and the likely cause is the lower nectar supply in GMHT tilled margins and crop edges. Expand
A novel approach to the use of genetically modified herbicide tolerant crops for environmental benefit
  • A. Dewar, M. May, +6 authors J. Pidgeon
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 2003
TLDR
A novel weed–management system for GMHT sugar beet, based on band spraying, which exploits the flexibility offered by the broad–spectrum partner herbicides to demonstrate that creative use of GMHT technology could be a powerful tool for developing more sustainable farming systems in the future. Expand
Responses of plants and invertebrate trophic groups to contrasting herbicide regimes in the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.
  • C. Hawes, A. J. Haughton, +16 authors G. Squire
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2003
TLDR
The Farm Scale Evaluations have demonstrated over 3 years and throughout the UK that herbivores, detritivores and many of their predators and parasitoids in arable systems are sensitive to the changes in weed communities that result from the introduction of new herbicide regimes. Expand
Design, analysis and statistical power of the Farm-Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops
Summary 1 The effects on British farmland wildlife of the management of four genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops are currently being studied in a 5-year trial termed the Farm-ScaleExpand
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