Cromolyn sodium has been reported to inhibit hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) in dogs and sheep, presumably by stabilizing mast cell membranes and thereby preventing the release of mediators such as leukotrienes. Because the effects of leukotriene synthesis and receptor blockers on HPV have been variable across studies, we studied the effect of cromolyn on HPV in the halothane-anesthetized sheep, a model in which we have found leukotriene synthesis and receptor blockers to be ineffective. In control animals, hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.13) increased pulmonary artery pressure (Ppa) 67% and pulmonary vascular resistance 85%, and these responses were reproducible with a second episode of hypoxia. In a second group of sheep, hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.13) during cromolyn administration (6 mg.kg-1.min-1) for 30 min increased (Ppa) 104% and increased pulmonary vascular resistance 124%. In a third group of sheep, cromolyn sodium (6 mg.kg-1.min-1) without hypoxia did not significantly affect pulmonary hemodynamics. We conclude that cromolyn sodium does not inhibit HPV in halothane-anesthetized sheep. In experimental designs in which cromolyn does alter HPV, the effect is more likely due to altered release of modulators of HPV rather than to decreased release of obligatory mediator of HPV.