Criticality of the Geological Zinc, Tin, and Lead Family

  title={Criticality of the Geological Zinc, Tin, and Lead Family},
  author={E. M. Harper and Goksin Kavlak and Lara Burmeister and Matthew J. Eckelman and Serkan Erbis and Vicente Sebastian Espinoza and Philip Nuss and T. E. Graedel},
  journal={Journal of Industrial Ecology},
Concerns about the future availability and continuity of metal supplies have triggered research efforts to define and assess metal criticality. In this study, we apply a comprehensive methodology to the elements of the geological zinc, tin, and lead family: zinc (Zn); germanium (Ge); cadmium (Cd); indium (In); tin (Sn); and lead (Pb). Zn, Sn, and Pb have played important roles in various technological sectors for centuries, whereas Ge, Cd, and In are by‐product metals that are increasingly… 
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