Criticality of the Geological Zinc, Tin, and Lead Family

  title={Criticality of the Geological Zinc, Tin, and Lead Family},
  author={E. M. Harper and Goksin Kavlak and Lara Burmeister and Matthew J. Eckelman and Serkan Erbis and Vicente Sebastian Espinoza and Philip Nuss and T. E. Graedel},
  journal={Journal of Industrial Ecology},
Concerns about the future availability and continuity of metal supplies have triggered research efforts to define and assess metal criticality. In this study, we apply a comprehensive methodology to the elements of the geological zinc, tin, and lead family: zinc (Zn); germanium (Ge); cadmium (Cd); indium (In); tin (Sn); and lead (Pb). Zn, Sn, and Pb have played important roles in various technological sectors for centuries, whereas Ge, Cd, and In are by‐product metals that are increasingly… 
Criticality of Seven Specialty Metals
Evaluating metal criticality is a topic that addresses future metals supply and that has inspired research in corporations, academic institutions, and governments. In this article, we apply a
Criticality of metals and metalloids
The results show that the limitations for many metals important in emerging electronics are largely those related to supply risk; those of platinum group metals, gold, and mercury, to environmental implications; and steel alloying elements as well as elements used in high-temperature alloys, to vulnerability to supply restriction.
Metal Criticality Determination for Australia, the US, and the Planet—Comparing 2008 and 2012 Results
Episodic supply shortages of metals and unsettling predictions of potential supply constraints in the future have led to a series of recent criticality evaluations. This study applies a consistent
Criticality of the Rare Earth Elements
Recent constraints on supplies of the rare earth elements (REEs) have led to concerns about their long‐term availability as well as the consequences that shortages would pose for modern technology.
Recovery of Critical Metals from Aqueous Sources.
Analysis indicates that aqueous mining would result in much lower environmental impacts on water, air, and land than ore mining, and preliminary assessments of the economics and energy consumption of recovery show potential for recovery of critical metals.
A method to assess national metal criticality: the environment as a foremost measurement
Ever-increasing mineral demand inspires nations to inspect the metal criticality situation that would be an indispensable path to ensure supply security in a foreseeable future. A diverse range of
Looking Down Under for a Circular Economy of Indium.
This study quantifies primary and secondary indium resources for Australia through a dynamic material-flow analysis and suggests that the resilience of Australia's indium supply can best be increased through efficiency gains in mining (such as introducing domestic indium refining capacity) rather than at the end of the product life.


Methodology of metal criticality determination.
The methodology has proven to be sufficiently robust as to make it applicable across the entire spectrum of metals and organizational levels and provides a structural approach that reflects the multifaceted factors influencing the availability of metals in the 21st century.
Earth's global Ag, Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn cycles
The stocks and flows of the global silver, aluminum, chromium, copper, iron, nickel, lead, and zinc cycles quantify over 98% of the total mass of metal mobilized by human activity at the turn of the
Tracking the devil's metal: Historical global and contemporary US tin cycles
Global mapping of Al, Cu, Fe, and Zn in-use stocks and in-ground resources
  • J. Rauch
  • Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2009
The magnitude at which in-ground metal resources have been translocated to in-use stocks is highlighted, largely from highly concentrated but globally dispersed in- ground deposits to more diffuse in- use stocks located primarily in developed urban regions.
Development of a Dynamic Substance Flow Model of Zinc in Japan
In this paper, a dynamic substance flow model of zinc in Japan was conducted. Currently, approximately 60% of zinc in Japan is used for galvanized steel (galvanized sheet and other galvanized
Lead In‐Use Stock
The 20th century was a time of rapidly escalating use of lead (Pb). As a consequence, the standing stock of lead is now substantial. By linking lead extraction and use to estimates of product
International Lead and Zinc Study Group
  • Economics
    International Organization
  • 1961
The International Lead and Zinc Study Group held its third session in Mexico City from March 20 to 24, 1961. Twenty-three of the twenty-five countries composing the Study Group, including Denmark
Review of germanium processing worldwide
Metal spectra as indicators of development
It is demonstrated that in some of the more developed countries, per capita metal use is more than 10 times the global average, and that the rate of use of the spectrum of metals stock is highly correlated to per capita gross domestic product, as well as to the Human Development Index and the Global Competitiveness Innovation Index.