Criticality of metals and metalloids.

  title={Criticality of metals and metalloids.},
  author={T E Graedel and E. M. Harper and Nedal T Nassar and Philip Nuss and Barbara K. Reck},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
  volume={112 14},
Imbalances between metal supply and demand, real or anticipated, have inspired the concept of metal criticality. We here characterize the criticality of 62 metals and metalloids in a 3D "criticality space" consisting of supply risk, environmental implications, and vulnerability to supply restriction. Contributing factors that lead to extreme values include high geopolitical concentration of primary production, lack of available suitable substitutes, and political instability. The results show… CONTINUE READING
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