Critical period revisited: impact on vision

  title={Critical period revisited: impact on vision},
  author={Hirofumi Morishita and Takao K. Hensch},
  journal={Current Opinion in Neurobiology},

Figures and Tables from this paper

Amblyopia: background to the special issue on stroke recovery.
Evidence from humans and animal models on the shaping of postnatal visual development by focused binocular input is summarized, finding ways to remediate vision in adulthood that bear some similarity to the interventions that have proved successful in promoting recovery from stroke.
Critical periods in amblyopia
Recent insights into the neurobiology of the initiation and termination of critical periods and how increasingly mechanistic understanding of these processes can be leveraged toward improved clinical treatment of adult amblyopia are discussed.
Neuronal Plasticity: Beyond the Critical Period
Is There a Critical Period for Treatment of Amblyopia ?
The results suggest that perceptual learning and video game play may be effective in improving a range of visual performance measures and importantly the improvements may transfer to better visual acuity and stereopsis.
GABAergic Inhibition in Visual Cortical Plasticity
The role of intracortical GABAergic circuitry in controlling both developmental and adult cortical plasticity is examined and its reduction by means of different pharmacological and environmental strategies makes it possible to greatly enhance plasticity in the adult visual cortex, promoting ocular dominance plasticity and recovery from amblyopia.
Experience-dependent reactivation of ocular dominance plasticity in the adult visual cortex
Multiple Roles for Nogo Receptor 1 in Visual System Plasticity
Potential mechanisms for NgR1 function in relation to manipulations that reactivate visual plasticity in adults are explored and lines of investigation are proposed to address relevant gaps in knowledge.
Dynamic response to initial stage blindness in visual system development.
This work investigated a unique sample of human infants who experienced initial stage blindness before the removal of bilateral cataracts to support that the retina might play critical roles in the development of the experience-dependent visual system and its malleability might partly contribute to the sensitive period plasticity.
Amblyopia: Challenges and Opportunities The Lasker/IRRF Initiative for Innovation in Vision Science
Recent insights into the neurobiology of the initiation and termination of critical periods are discussed and how increasingly mechanistic understanding of these processes can be leveraged toward improved clinical treatment of adult amblyopia are discussed.
Monocular deprivation boosts long-term visual plasticity


Critical period plasticity in local cortical circuits
  • T. Hensch
  • Biology
    Nature Reviews Neuroscience
  • 2005
The reactivation of this process, and subsequent recovery of function in conditions such as amblyopia, can now be studied with realistic circuit models that might generalize across systems.
Critical period regulation.
  • T. Hensch
  • Biology, Psychology
    Annual review of neuroscience
  • 2004
This review summarizes the current understanding of known critical periods across several systems and species and delineates a number of emerging principles: functional competition between inputs, role for electrical activity, structural consolidation, regulation by experience, special role for inhibition in the CNS, potent influence of attention and motivation, unique timing and duration.
Experience-Driven Plasticity of Visual Cortex Limited by Myelin and Nogo Receptor
Monocular deprivation normally alters ocular dominance in the visual cortex only during a postnatal critical period (20 to 32 days postnatal in mice). We find that mutations in the Nogo-66 receptor
Inhibitory threshold for critical-period activation in primary visual cortex
It is shown that the potential for plasticity is retained throughout life until an inhibitory threshold is attained, and a threshold level of inhibition within the visual cortex may trigger, once in life, an experience-dependent critical period for circuit consolidation, which may otherwise lie dormant.
Critical periods during sensory development
Experience-dependent recovery of vision following chronic deprivation amblyopia
It is demonstrated that complete visual deprivation through dark exposure restores rapid ocular dominance plasticity in adult rats and the loss of visual acuity resulting from chronic monocular deprivation is reversed if dark exposure precedes removal of the occlusion in adulthood, suggesting a potential use for dark exposure in the treatment of adult amblyopia.
Multiple periods of functional ocular dominance plasticity in mouse visual cortex
Arc induction is used to monitor the functional pattern of ipsilateral eye representation in cortex during normal development and after visual deprivation, and functionally assessed OD can be altered in cortex by ocular imbalances substantially earlier and far later than expected.
Lifelong learning: ocular dominance plasticity in mouse visual cortex