Critical collapse of the massless scalar field in axisymmetry

@article{Choptuik2003CriticalCO,
  title={Critical collapse of the massless scalar field in axisymmetry},
  author={Matthew William Choptuik and Eric W. Hirschmann and Steven L. Liebling and F.Pretorius},
  journal={Physical Review D},
  year={2003},
  volume={68},
  pages={044007}
}
We present the results from a numerical study of critical gravitational collapse of axisymmetric distributions of massless scalar field energy. We find threshold behavior that can be described by the spherically symmetric critical solution with axisymmetric perturbations. However, we see indications of a growing, nonspherical mode about the spherically symmetric critical solution. The effect of this instability is that the small asymmetry present in what would otherwise be a spherically… 

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