Endoscopic treatment (by sphincterotomy) is now the preferred method for patients with retained or recurrent bile duct stones after surgery. It is also applicable to many acutely ill or high-risk patients who have not undergone cholecystectomy. Endoscopic stenting is preferable to the percutaneous transhepatic method for palliation of malignant biliary obstruction in patients unfit or unsuitable for surgery. Balloon dilatation and stenting can be used for management of postoperative bile duct trauma and biliary fistulae, and in patients with dominant strictures in sclerosing cholangitis. Papillary stenosis and sphincter of Oddi dysfunction can be treated by sphincterotomy after careful patient selection. Endoscopy is a new and simpler form of surgery. A team approach including endoscopists, surgeons, and radiologists is essential for appropriate patient care and for objective evaluation of new methods.