Critical Period in the Social Development of Dogs

@article{Freedman1961CriticalPI,
  title={Critical Period in the Social Development of Dogs},
  author={Daniel G. Freedman and John Arthur King and Orville Elliot},
  journal={Science},
  year={1961},
  volume={133},
  pages={1016 - 1017}
}
Litters of puppies were isolated, with the bitch, in fenced acre fields from 2 to 14 weeks of age. They were removed indoors at different ages, played with for a week, and returned to the field. The pups manifested an increasing tendency to withdraw from human beings after 5 weeks of age and unless socialization occurred before 14 weeks of age, withdrawal reactions from humans became so intense that normal relationships could not thereafter be established 

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A detailed description of the socialization procedure may be obtained from us
The support of the Rockefeller Foundation and the Ford Foundation is gratefully acknowledged