Crisis in Context: The End of the Late Bronze Age in the Eastern Mediterranean

  title={Crisis in Context: The End of the Late Bronze Age in the Eastern Mediterranean},
  author={A. Bernard Knapp and Sturt W. Manning},
  journal={American Journal of Archaeology},
  pages={99 - 149}
Explanations for the Late Bronze Age crisis and collapse in the eastern Mediterranean are legion: migrations, predations by external forces, political struggles within dominant polities or system collapse among them, inequalities between centers and peripheries, climatic change and natural disasters, disease/plague. There has never been any overarching explanation to account for all the changes within and beyond the eastern Mediterranean, some of which occurred at different times from the mid… 

Establishing the Middle Sea: The Late Bronze Age of Mediterranean Europe (1700–900 BC)

The Late Bronze Age (1700–900 BC) represents an extremely dynamic period for Mediterranean Europe. Here, we provide a comparative survey of the archaeological record of over half a millennium within

Was There a 3.2 ka Crisis in Europe? A Critical Comparison of Climatic, Environmental, and Archaeological Evidence for Radical Change during the Bronze Age–Iron Age Transition

  • B. Molloy
  • Environmental Science
    Journal of Archaeological Research
  • 2022
The globalizing connections that defined the European Bronze Age in the second millennium BC either ended or abruptly changed in the decades around 1200 BC. The impact of climate change at 3.2 ka on

Migration Myths and the End of the Bronze Age in the Eastern Mediterranean

This Element looks critically at migration scenarios proposed for the end of the Bronze Age in the eastern Mediterranean. After presenting some historical background to the development of migration

Beyond megadrought and collapse in the Northern Levant: The chronology of Tell Tayinat and two historical inflection episodes, around 4.2ka BP, and following 3.2ka BP

A large set of radiocarbon data is reported and the stratigraphic sequence using Bayesian chronological modelling is incorporated to create a refined timeframe for Tell Tayinat and a secure basis for analysis of the site with respect to its broader regional context and climate history.

Should I Stay or Should I Go? Mycenaeans, Migration, and Mobility in the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age Eastern Mediterranean

A recent paper argues that climate change at the end of the Late Bronze Age caused mass migrations, ‘vast movements of population’, out of the Balkans into Greece and Anatolia, with migrants

Tracing the Remains of a Late Bronze Age Field System in Central Mainland Greece

The assumption that the Late Bronze Age (‘Late Helladic’ or LH) texts in the Linear B script, used on Crete and mainland Greece and dating to about 1390 to 1190 BC, can be used in conjunction with

Community Resilience Through Crisis At El Infiernito, Chiapas, A Fortified Refuge In The Upper Usumacinta Valley

Collapse has been misunderstood to equate with the disappearance of civilizations, but political fragmentation is merely one aspect of the complex processes of social transformation. Other concepts,

Settlement, environment, and climate change in SW Anatolia: Dynamics of regional variation and the end of Antiquity

This paper develops a regional dataset of change at 381 settlements for Lycia-Pamphylia in southwest Anatolia (Turkey) from volume 8 of the Tabula Imperii Byzantini–a compilation of historical

Resilient Social Actors in the Transition from the Late Bronze to the Early Iron Age on Cyprus

Our understanding of the earliest Iron Age on Cyprus has long remained somewhat obscure. This is the result of both a relative lack of material evidence and the fact that scholarly attention has



Environmental Roots of the Late Bronze Age Crisis

The statistical analysis of proximate and ultimate features of the sequential collapse reveals the relationships of climate-driven famine, sea-borne-invasion, region-wide warfare, and politico-economic collapse, in whose wake new societies and new ideologies were created.

Cyprus at the End of the Late Bronze Age: Crisis and Colonization or Continuity and Hybridization?

Ancient cultural encounters in the Mediterranean were conditioned by everything from barter and exchange through migration and military engagement to colonization and conquest. Within the

Migration, Hybridization, and Resistance: Identity Dynamics in the Early Iron Age Southern Levant

This chapter confronts the systemic divide in modern scholarship that separates Aegean prehistory from Classical archaeology and considers its ramifications. In so doing, the problems of

Drought and societal collapse 3200 years ago in the Eastern Mediterranean: a review

One of the goals of climate scientists is to understand how climate shifts may have changed the course of history and influenced culture at millennial timescales. Repeatedly, environmental

Climate and the Late Bronze Collapse: New Evidence from the Southern Levant

Abstract A core drilled from the Sea of Galilee was subjected to high resolution pollen analysis for the Bronze and Iron Ages. The detailed pollen diagram (sample/~40 yrs) was used to reconstruct

Climate Change during and after the Roman Empire: Reconstructing the Past from Scientific and Historical Evidence

Growing scientific evidence from modern climate science is loaded with implications for the environmental history of the Roman Empire and its successor societies. The written and archaeological

The decline of Late Bronze Age civilization as a possible response to climatic change

The disintegration of Eastern Mediterranean civilization at the end of the late Bronze Age (late thirteenth and twelfth centuries B.C.) has traditionally been attributed to the irruption of new

The Collapse of Palatial Society in LBA Greece and the Postpalatial Period

This thesis offers a contextualised approach to the collapse of the Mycenaean palace societies of mainland Greece, c.1200BC, and aspects of Mycenaean society in the postpalatial (LHIIIC) period. It

Cyprus Before History: From the Earliest Settlers to the End of the Bronze Age

Cyprus is the third largest island in the Mediterranean, and lies at the nexus of many important ancient trade routes, from Asia Minor to Africa, from Persia, Assyria and other great eastern powers

Forces of transformation : the end of the Bronze Age in the Mediterranean : proceedings of an international symposium held at St. John's College, University of Oxford, 25-6th March, 2006

The volume is the first in nearly a decade to focus a wide range of scholarship on one of the most compelling periods in the antiquity of the Mediterranean and Near East. It presents new interpretive