Criminality and the 2D:4D Ratio

@article{Ellis2015CriminalityAT,
  title={Criminality and the 2D:4D Ratio},
  author={Lee Ellis and Anthony W. Hoskin},
  journal={International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology},
  year={2015},
  volume={59},
  pages={295 - 312}
}
  • L. Ellis, A. Hoskin
  • Published 5 September 2013
  • Psychology
  • International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
A decade old theory hypothesizes that brain exposure to androgens promotes involvement in criminal behavior. General support for this hypothesis has been provided by studies of postpubertal circulating levels of testosterone, at least among males. However, the theory also predicts that for both genders, prenatal androgens will be positively correlated with persistent offending, an idea for which no evidence currently exists. The present study used an indirect measure of prenatal androgen… 
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REVISITING THE CRIMINOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF EXPOSURE TO FETAL TESTOSTERONE: A META-ANALYSIS OF THE 2D:4D DIGIT RATIO†
As criminology has become more interdisciplinary in recent years, biosocial criminology has earned a place at the table. Although this perspective comes in many forms, one important proposition has
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One research line in criminal behavior studies 2D:4D ratio as predictor of aggression and violent behavior has been established, given that there are sexually dimorphic behaviors associated with the
General Theory versus ENA Theory
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This study investigates whether a higher level of pre‐natal testosterone, as indicated by the 2D: 4D digit ratio, is a correlate of psychopathy and cognitive empathy. The main research hypothesis
Masculinized Finger Length Patterns in Human Males and Females with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
TLDR
Results are consistent with the idea that prenatal androgen exposure reduces the 2D:4D and plays a role in the establishment of the sex difference in human finger length patterns, and finger lengths may offer a retrospective marker of perinatal androgens exposure in humans.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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Offenders differ from non-offenders in their propensity to engage in risk-taking behaviour. The ratio of the index and ring fingers (2D:4D), a proxy of prenatal testosterone exposure, has been linked
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