Creation of the Uranus rings and dust bands

@article{Esposito1989CreationOT,
  title={Creation of the Uranus rings and dust bands},
  author={Larry W. Esposito and Joshua E. Colwell},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1989},
  volume={339},
  pages={605-607}
}
VOYAGER observations of the extended hydrogen exosphere of Uranus and of the σ Ring and its shepherds set an upper limit to the age of the σ Ring of 6 × 108 years. Unless we are seeing Uranus at a special time in its history, this requires a continuing process to create the ring material. We propose that the moons, rings and dust now visible in the Uranus system are created by the diminution of larger objects by meteoroid impacts. A Monte Carlo calculation shows that the largest surviving… 
Origins of the rings of Uranus and Neptune: 2. Initial conditions and ring moon populations
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A model of dust production in the Neptune ring system
Voyager 2 images of the Neptunian ring system show it to be relatively dusty with the fraction of micron-sized dust particles in the rings between about 0.2 and 0.7 (Smith et al 1989). We apply a
Origins of the rings of Uranus and Neptune: 1. Statistics of satellite disruptions
Stochastic simulations of the collisional fragmentation of the small moons of Neptune and Uranus confirm the conclusions of Smith et al. [1986, 1989] that many of these moons cannot have survived
Circumplanetary Dust Populations
We summarize the current state of observations of circumplanetary dust populations, including both dilute and dense rings and tori around the giant planets, ejecta clouds engulfing airless moons, and
A belt of moonlets in Saturn’s A ring
TLDR
Embedded moonlets found in Saturn’s A ring are probably the remnants of a shattered ring-moon of Pan size or larger, locally contributing new material to the older ring, which supports the theory of catastrophic ring creation in a collisional cascade.
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