Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists.

  title={Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists.},
  author={Henry L. Roediger and Kathleen B. McDermott},
  journal={Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition},
  • H. Roediger, K. McDermott
  • Published 1995
  • Psychology
  • Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition
False memories—either remembering events that never happened, or remembering them quite differently from the way they happened—have recently captured the attention of both psychologists and the public at large. The primary impetus for this recent surge of interest is the increase in the number of cases in which memories of previously unrecognized abuse are reported during the course of therapy. Some researchers have argued that certain therapeutic practices can cause the creation of false… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

'Mind the gap': false memories for missing aspects of an event
Numerous eyewitness testimony studies have shown that people can falsely remember parts of an event after being exposed to misleading suggestion about it (Loftus, Miller, & Burns, 1978); however, few
Study modality and false recall.
Two studies support the proposal that resource availability plays a role in the expression of the modality effect in the DRM paradigm by reducing false recall in the visual study presentation condition and the addition of a divided attention task at encoding.
False memories: Phenomena, theories, and implications.
In recent years, there has been an explosion of research on false memories: the subjective experience of remembering something if that something did apparently not happen in reality. We review a
Incredible memories: How accurate are the reports of anomalous events
Psychologists have studied the accuracy of eyewitness testimony for many decades and, more recently, there has been a great deal of re- search carried out on the topic of false memories. An overview
Elevated Cortisol at Retrieval Suppresses False Memories in Parallel with Correct Memories
The results support gist-based theories of false memory generation, assuming a simultaneous storage of the gist and specific details of an event.
Trying to recollect past events: confidence, beliefs, and memories.
Positive consequences of false memories.
Examining the role false memories play in subsequent problem-solving tasks showed that survival-related words were not only better recollected but were also more susceptible than neutral words to false memory illusions and survival- related false memories were better than neutral false memories as primes for problem-Solving.
However research focused on human memory – as expected to bring further insight into the entire mind architecture captured scientists attention many years ago, still very few is known about
Output monitoring tests reveal false memories of memories that never existed
The intriguing finding was that unrecalled items were believed to have been studied approximately 80% of the time, and half of those were also believed to has been recalled, which represents a dual false memory effect.


Some experiments relating to Bartlett's theory of remembering.
It is concluded that for various reasons subjects in Bartlett-type experiments often do more or less consciously invent material to bridge gaps in their memories, and that Bartlett's claims that the occurrence and nature of such changes and distortions shed light on the mechanisms of remembering must be regarded with caution.
The reality of repressed memories.
  • E. Loftus
  • Psychology
    The American psychologist
  • 1993
There has been a rise in reported memories of childhood sexual abuse that were allegedly repressed for many years, and people with recently unearthed memories are suing alleged perpetrators for events that happened 20, 30, even 40 or more years earlier.
Qualities of the unreal.
The results of these experiments indicate that subtle differences exist between perceived and suggested memories, that people have a minimal ability to detect these differences, and that instructions can improve that ability.
False memories of childhood experiences.
We conducted two experiments to investigate if college students would create false memories of childhood experiences in response to misleading information and repeated interviews. In both experiments
Remembering and knowing: Two means of access to the personal past
The nature of recollective experience was examined in a recognition memory task, and data support the two-factor theories of recognition memory by dissociating two forms of recognition, and shed light on the nature of conscious recollection.
The experiential basis of serial position effects.
Abstract Subjects studied eight lists in preparation for single-trial, free recall tests, but were tested only on four lists. They later received a recognition test over all lists and judged items as
Repeatedly Thinking about a Non-event: Source Misattributions among Preschoolers
Abstract In this paper we review the factors alleged to be responsible for the creation of inaccurate reports among preschool-aged children, focusing on so-called "source misattribution errors." We
Illusions of familiarity.
Feelings of familiarity are not direct products of memory. Although prior experience of a stimulus can produce a feeling of familiarity, that feeling can also be aroused in the absence of prior
Recall criterion does not affect recall level or hypermnesia: A puzzle for generate/recognize theories
Recall improved across the three tests in all conditions, but the improvement was greater for high-than for low-imagery words and hypermnesia was shown to occur following semantic rehearsal instructions as well as imagery instructions and to occur with low- Imagery words, contrary to the imagery hypothesis of the effect.
Reality monitoring judgments of other people’s memories
The characteristics of witnesses’ descriptions of events were varied by manipulating the type of covert rehearsal in which witnesses engaged before they described the events. Descriptions were more