Creatine promotes cancer metastasis through activation of Smad2/3.

@article{Zhang2021CreatinePC,
  title={Creatine promotes cancer metastasis through activation of Smad2/3.},
  author={Liwen Zhang and Zijing Zhu and Huiwen Yan and Wen Wang and Zhenzhen Wu and Fei Zhang and Qixiang Zhang and Guizhi Shi and Jun-Feng Du and Huiyun Cai and Xuanxuan Zhang and David S. Hsu and Pu Gao and Hai-long Piao and Gang Chen and Pengcheng Bu},
  journal={Cell metabolism},
  year={2021}
}
As one of the most popular nutrient supplements, creatine has been highly used to increase muscle mass and improve exercise performance. Here, we report an adverse effect of creatine using orthotopic mouse models, showing that creatine promotes colorectal and breast cancer metastasis and shortens mouse survival. We show that glycine amidinotransferase (GATM), the rate-limiting enzyme for creatine synthesis, is upregulated in liver metastases. Dietary uptake, or GATM-mediated de novo synthesis… 
14 Citations
HIF-Dependent CKB Expression Promotes Breast Cancer Metastasis, Whereas Cyclocreatine Therapy Impairs Cellular Invasion and Improves Chemotherapy Efficacy
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Creatine kinase, brain isoform was identified as an HIF-dependent gene that strongly promotes invasion and metastasis in estrogen-receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer models and cCr may be an effective anti-metastatic agent in ER-negative, Hif-1α-positive breast cancers, targeting both cellular metabolism and motility, particularly when paired with conventional cytotoxic agents.
HIF-dependent CKB expression promotes breast cancer metastasis, whereas cyclocreatine therapy impairs cellular invasion and improves chemotherapy efficacy
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Loss and gain of function genetic approaches were used in combination with cCr therapy to define the contribution of CKB expression or creatine kinase activity to cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and metastasis in ER-negative breast cancers.
HIF-dependent expression of creatine kinase brain isoform (CKB) promotes breast cancer metastasis, and blocking creatine kinase activity with cyclocreatine impairs invasion and improves the efficacy of conventional chemotherapies
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Loss and gain of function genetic approaches were used in combination with cCr therapy to define the contribution of CKB expression or creatine kinase activity to cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and metastasis in ER-negative breast cancers.
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The latest advances in understanding creatine regulation of T cell antitumor immunity are highlighted, a topic that has previously gained little attention in the creatine research field.
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This protocol describes the generation of a mouse colorectal cancer model that mimics the process of clinical CRC metastasis and can be used to study different stages of CRC progression and to identify molecular markers or therapeutic targets.
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UBE2E3 may be potentially involved in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis by regulating cellular senescence and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs.
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