Creatine in Humans with Special Reference to Creatine Supplementation

  title={Creatine in Humans with Special Reference to Creatine Supplementation},
  author={Paul D. Balsom and Karin S{\"o}derlund and Bj{\"o}rn Ekblom},
  journal={Sports Medicine},
SummarySince the discovery of creatine in 1832, it has fascinated scientists with its central role in skeletal muscle metabolism. In humans, over 95% of the total creatine (Crtot) content is located in skeletal muscle, of which approximately a third is in its free (Crf) form. The remainder is present in a phosphorylated (Crphos) form. Crf and Crphos levels in skeletal muscle are subject to individual variations and are influenced by factors such as muscle fibre type, age and disease, but not… 

Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Exercise Performance

Creatinine is synthesised from the amino acids glycine, arginine and methionine in the kidneys, liver and pancreas, and is predominantly found in skeletal muscle, where it exists in 2 forms.

The Role of Supplemented Creatine in Human Metabolism

This review is focused on creatine (CR) (methyl guanidine acetic acid) and its application in the form of a dietary supplement and the description of affects caused by its application on human body and metabolism.

Oral Creatine Supplementation and Skeletal Muscle Metabolism in Physical Exercise

There is a shortage of scientific evidence concerning the adverse effects following creatine supplementation in healthy individuals even with long-term dosage, so creatine may be considered as a widespread, effective and safe ergogenic aid.

D3 -creatine dilution for skeletal muscle mass measurement: historical development and current status.

Observations raise serious concerns regarding the accuracy of the deuterated-creatine dilution method for estimating total body skeletal muscle mass as now defined by cadaver analyses of whole wet tissues and in vivo approaches such as magnetic resonance imaging.


Findings indicate that CS (at doses equivalent to 1 and 8 times label claims) is not an effective form of creatine to promote muscle creatine and/or phosphagen retention, and claims that that CS is a more effective forms of creatine than creatine monohydrate appear to be false.

Creatine supplementation has no effect on human muscle protein turnover at rest in the postabsorptive or fed states.

Any increase in muscle mass accompanying creatine supplementation must be associated with increased physical activity, and creatine had no effect on turnover in the postabsorptive or fed states.

Is there a rationale for the use of creatine either as nutritional supplementation or drug administration in humans participating in a sport?

  • G. Benzi
  • Medicine
    Pharmacological research
  • 2000
Even though no unambiguous proof for enhanced performance during high-intensity exercise has yet been reported, the creatine administration is charged to improve physical performance and has become a

Creatine supplementation in health and disease. Effects of chronic creatine ingestion in vivo: Down-regulation of the expression of creatine transporter isoforms in skeletal muscle

The present article reports that chronic Cr supplementation in rats down-regulates in vivo the expression of the CreaT, and introduces the Cr transporter protein (CreaT), responsible for uptake of Cr into cells, as one of the key-players for the multi-faceted regulation of cellular Cr homeostasis.

1H NMR urine analysis as an effective tool to detect creatine supplementation.

How easily creatine can be determined and quantitated by 1H NMR spectroscopy is Documented, which shows how easily the doping practices of at least nine athletes could be observed.

Creatine and creatinine metabolism.

A comprehensive survey of the many intriguing facets of creatine (Cr) and creatinine metabolism is presented, encompassing the pathways and regulation of Cr biosynthesis and degradation, species and tissue distribution of the enzymes and metabolites involved, and of the inherent implications for physiology and human pathology.



Creatine Metabolism in Men: Creatine Pool Size and Turnover in Relation to Creatine Intake

It can be con cluded that the size of the body pool of creatine can be influenced by dietary creatine, administration of precursor amino acids can increase the rate of synthesis of creatine, and creatinine output is a constant fraction of theBody creatine pool and can change independently of lean body mass.

Elevation of creatine in resting and exercised muscle of normal subjects by creatine supplementation.

Competition with 5g of creatine monohydrate, four or six times a day for 2 or more days resulted in a significant increase in the total creatine content of the quadriceps femoris muscle measured in 17 subjects, and in some the increase was as much as 50%.

Creatine metabolism in skeletal muscle. I. Creatine movement across muscle membranes.

A special mechanism for entry, the saturable process, and intracellular trapping of creatine provide a plausible explanation for the high creatine content of skeletal muscle.

Resynthesis of creatine phosphate in human muscle after exercise in relation to intramuscular pH and availability of oxygen.

It was concluded that the creatine kinase reaction is at a steady state or at equilibrium during the period of recovery, and the initial fast phase of CP resynthesis is limited by the availability of oxygen whereas the subsequent slow phase islimited by the hydrogen ion transport out from the muscle.

Effect of oral creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle phosphocreatine resynthesis.

The data suggest that a dietary-induced increase in muscle total Cr concentration can increase PCr resynthesis during the 2nd min of recovery from intense contraction.

Creatine and the Control of Muscle‐Specific Protein Synthesis in Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle

Results show that muscle-specific protein synthesis in both skeletal and cardiac muscle is selectively stimulated by creatine, and increasing the intracellular creatine concentration leads to increased rates of synthesis of myosin heavy chain and actin.

Creatine metabolism in skeletal muscle. 3. Specificity of the creatine entry process.

Evidence is found that creatine enters skeletal muscle via a novel transport site specifically adapted to interact with an amidine group through the entry of radioactively labeled creatine into skeletal muscle in vivo.

Effect of aging on energy-rich phosphagens in human skeletal muscles.

It was concluded that energy-rich compounds showed significant but small age-related variations in men and women about 40 years younger, and the intramuscular concentrations of both total adenine nucleotides and phosphocreatine were approximately 5% lower in the elderly.

Preliminary studies of energy‐rich phosphagens in muscle from severely ill patients

A low energy charge potential was found in patients with prolonged diseases, possibly being the cellular expression for the concept of the post-traumatic catabolic state.

Muscle composition in relation to age and sex.

The results show that in the assessment of muscle constituents, age and sex must be taken into account.