Creatine and creatine kinase in health and disease--a bright future ahead?

  title={Creatine and creatine kinase in health and disease--a bright future ahead?},
  author={Markus Wyss and Olivier Braissant and Ivo Pischel and Gajja S. Salomons and Andreas Schulze and Sylvia Stockler and Theo Wallimann},
  journal={Sub-cellular biochemistry},
Many links are reported or suspected between the functioning of creatine, phosphocreatine, the creatine kinase isoenzymes or the creatine biosynthesis enzymes on one hand, and health or disease on the other hand. The aim of the present book was to outline our current understanding on many of these links. In this chapter, we summarize the main messages and conclusions presented in this book. In addition, we refer to a number of recent publications that highlight the pleiotropy in physiological… 


The volume presented here, as well as a new book on “Molecular Systems Bioenergetics: Energy for Life, Basic Principles, Organization and Dynamics of Cellular Energetics”, provide a comprehensive overview of the field, with emphasis on complementary facets of this broad topic.

The phosphocreatine–creatine kinase system helps to shape muscle cells and keep them healthy and alive

  • V. Saks
  • Biology
    The Journal of physiology
  • 2008
The authors show that it is the PCr–CK system which sustains localized ATP-dependent reactions during actin polymerization in myoblast fusion, showing its new role in energy supply for cytoskeletal remodelling.

Controlling the Flow of Energy: Inhibition and Stimulation of the Creatine Transporter

This review will examine the data and the tools that are available in rela- tion to the regulation and expression of the creatine transporter, and the possible practical relevance of manipulating the Creatine transporter activity.

Creatine and the Liver: Metabolism and Possible Interactions.

Creatine administration is known to decrease the consumption of Sadenosyl methionine and also reduce the homocysteine production in liver, diminishing fat accumulation and resulting in beneficial effects in fatty liver and non-alcoholic liver disease.

Dissociated Expression of Mitochondrial and Cytosolic Creatine Kinases in the Human Brain: A New Perspective on the Role of Creatine in Brain Energy Metabolism

A strikingly dissociated pattern of expression was found: uMtCK was found to be ubiquitously and exclusively expressed in neuronal populations, whereas BCK was dominantly expressed in astrocytes, with a low and selective expression in neurons.

Metabolic Agents that Enhance ATP can Improve Cognitive Functioning: A Review of the Evidence for Glucose, Oxygen, Pyruvate, Creatine, and L-Carnitine

Evidence suggests that several metabolic agents may prove to be effective in improving and preserving cognitive performance and may lead to better cognitive aging through the lifespan.

Disturbed energy metabolism and muscular dystrophy caused by pure creatine deficiency are reversible by creatine intake

It is shown that Cr depletion leads to several metabolic abnormalities in muscle, including reduced ATP, increased inorganic phosphate levels and reduced activities of proton‐pumping respiratory chain enzymes and an elevated glycolytic contribution in ischaemic circumstances.



Creatine and creatinine metabolism.

A comprehensive survey of the many intriguing facets of creatine (Cr) and creatinine metabolism is presented, encompassing the pathways and regulation of Cr biosynthesis and degradation, species and tissue distribution of the enzymes and metabolites involved, and of the inherent implications for physiology and human pathology.

Creatine supplementation: exploring the role of the creatine kinase/phosphocreatine system in human muscle.

Muscle hypertrophy and glycogen supercompensation are candidate factors to explain the ergogenic potential of creatine ingestion as well as the scientific background concerning potential side effects of creatine supplementation.

The Creatine Kinase/Creatine Connection to Alzheimer's Disease: CK Inactivation, APP-CK Complexes, and Focal Creatine Deposits

Whether Cr, if given at an early time point of the disease, may prevent or delay the course of AD-related neurodegeneration is considered, and the potential value of supplementation with Cr, a potent neuroprotective substance is considered.

Creatine metabolism in skeletal muscle

Because of creatine's role in muscle, one or more defects of creatine metabolism could be causes rather than consequences of d' isease, and knowledge of the ways by which high creatine levels compromise other vital cellular processes is needed.

Creatine in Humans with Special Reference to Creatine Supplementation

It is shown that both Crf and Crphos levels in skeletal muscle can be increased, and performance of high intensity intermittent exercise enhanced, following a period of creatine supplementation, however, neither endurance exercise performance nor maximal oxygen uptake appears to be enhanced.

Creatine Kinase Activity Is Associated With Blood Pressure

Creatine kinase is associated with blood pressure in a multiethnic population of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and further studies are needed to explore the nature of this association, including how variation in cardiovascular creatine kinase activity may affect pressor responses.

Functional insights into the creatine transporter.

CRT antibodies have been developed enabling the localization of creatine uptake sites in the brain, retina, muscle and other tissues, and development of suitable mouse models may allow improved understanding of the importance of the CRT for normal brain function and how the transporter is regulated in vivo.

Disorders of Creatine Metabolism

Intracellular creatine and creatine-phosphate are non-enzymatically cycled to creatinine, with a constant daily turnover of 1.5% of body creatine.