Craniomandibular Morphology and Phylogenetic Affinities of Panthera atrox: Implications for the Evolution and Paleobiology of the Lion Lineage

  title={Craniomandibular Morphology and Phylogenetic Affinities of Panthera atrox: Implications for the Evolution and Paleobiology of the Lion Lineage},
  author={Per Christiansen and John Maddern Harris},
ABSTRACT The great North American Pleistocene pantherine felid Panthera atrox has had a turbulent phylogenetic history, and has been claimed to show affinities to both the jaguar and the tiger; currently, it is most often regarded as a subspecies of the extant lion. The cranial, mandibular, and dental morphology of Panthera atrox was compared with those of extant lions, jaguars, and tigers using bivariate, multivariate, and shape analyses. Results indicate that the skull of Panthera atrox… 
Phylogenetics of Panthera, including Panthera atrox, based on craniodental characters
The phylogenetic position of Panthera atrox within Felidae is still controversial despite many morphological and molecular studies addressing its relationships. This is in part due to the lack of
Oldest Known Pantherine Skull and Evolution of the Tiger
This find supports a north-central Chinese origin of the tiger lineage, and demonstrates that various parts of the cranium, mandible, and dentition evolved at different rates.
The fossil American lion (Panthera atrox) in South America: Palaeobiogeographical implications
Abstract By the late 19th and early 20th centuries, authors described several specimens belonging to a very large felid, the size of a lion, from some Late Pleistocene localities at southern Chile
Endocranial Morphology of the Extinct North American Lion (Panthera atrox)
CT scans of a skull of P. atrox from the Pleistocene La Brea Tar pits were used to generate the first virtual endocranium for this species and to elucidate previously unknown details of its brain size and gross structure, cranial nerves, and inner-ear morphology.
First Asian record of Panthera (Leo) fossilis (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae) in the Early Pleistocene of Western Siberia, Russia.
A lion-like pantherine felid is described as Panthera (Leo) fossilis from the late Early Pleistocene sediments of the Kuznetsk Basin (Western Siberia, Russia), which considerably extends the current notion of the eastward expansion of the most ancient lions.
First occurrence of Panthera atrox (Felidae, Pantherinae) in the Mexican state of Hidalgo and a review of therecord of felids from the Pleistocene of Mexico
Abstract. Panthera atrox was a common large-sized cat in North America during the late Pleistocene. An isolated lower canine and a fifth metacarpal bone referable to this species were recovered from
Geographical variation and phylogenetics of modern lions based on craniometric data
The results of multivariate analysis of craniometric data indicate that lion skulls vary considerably throughout their geographical range and that the variation is greater within populations than between them, a significant subdivision being found only between sub-Sahara Africa and North Africa/Asia.
Functional limb morphology of extinct carnivores Smilodon fatalis, Panthera atrox, and Canis dirus based on comparisons with four extant felids and one extant canid
In the geometric morphometric analysis of the forelimb, the cursorial carnivores differed from non-cursorial felids in glenoid fossa shape, humeral greater and lesser tubercles and radial tuberosity positioning, and distal radioulnar joint articular facet shape.
The clavicles of Smilodon fatalis and Panthera atrox (mammalia: Felidae) from Rancho La Brea, Los Angeles, California
This study includes a reevaluation of clavicles that have been previously assigned to S. fatalis, which are more likely to be those of Panthera atrox, and the description of pantherine catClavicles, and reports distinctive morphology of the clavicle morph of Acinonyx jubatus.
Landmark Analysis of Musteloid Carnassials Applied to Taxonomic Identification and Examination of Sexual Dimorphism and Regional Morphotypes
Guy Wilson Cave (GWC) in Sullivan County, Tennessee holds many late Pleistocene mammal fossils. Based on visual morphology, several partial mandibles with lower carnassial from GWC appeared to be


Phylogeny of the great cats (Felidae: Pantherinae), and the influence of fossil taxa and missing characters
  • P. Christiansen
  • Medicine, Biology
    Cladistics : the international journal of the Willi Hennig Society
  • 2008
This study presents the results of a cladistic study encompassing 45 osteological and dental characters in the skull and mandible, as well as 13 soft‐tissue and behavioural characters, which show the clouded leopard is the most basal pantherine, followed by the snow leopard.
Systematic position of the cave lion Panthera spelaea (Goldfuss) based on cranial and dental characters
The cranial morphology of P. spelaea confirms its phylogenetic position within the lion group, whereas many of the characters supporting the cave lion's relationship with the tiger are primitive.
The Jaguar - Panthera onca gombaszoegensis (Kretzoi, 1938) (Carnivora: Felidae) in the late lower pleistocene of Akhalkalaki (south Georgia; Transcaucasia) and its evolutionary and ecological significance
Abstract A lower hemimandibula of a pantherine cat of Akhalkalaki (south Georgia, Transcaucasia) is re-examinated. The fossil originates from lacustrine sediments of late Lower Pleistocene age (0.9 −
Molecular phylogeny of the extinct cave lion Panthera leo spelaea.
Phylogenetic analysis shows that the ancient sequences form a clade that is most closely related to the extant lions from Africa and Asia; at the same time, cave lions appear to be highly distinct from their living relatives.
Taphonomy and palaeoecology of Olduvai Bed-I (Pleistocence, Tanzania).
The interpretation of the palaeoenvironments is that the middle Bed-I faunas indicate a very rich closed woodland environment, richer than any part of the present-day savanna biome in Africa, changing to less rich woodland in upperBed-I with a trend towards more open and seasonal woodlands at the top of the series.
Evolution of the mane and group-living in the lion ( Panthera leo ): a review
The evolutionary history of the lion Panthera leo began in Pliocene east Africa, as open habitats expanded towards the end of the Cenozoic. During the middle–late Pleistocene, lions spread to most
Pleistocene remains of the lion-like cat (Panthera atrox) from the Yukon Territory and northern Alaska
Skull and forelimb fragments of the large, extinct cat (Panthera atrox) from Pleistocene sediments in the Dawson area, Yukon Territory, are the first records of the species for Canada. A further
The Felidae of Rancho La Brea
Were one to select any single item to illustrate the most striking phase in the long list of exceptional features of our North American Pleistocene life as exhibited by the Rancho La Brea fauna, it
  • 2004
About thirty occurrences of true cats, felines, of the size of pumas or larger have been reported in the Pleistocene of North America. Except for the specimens from the asphalt of Rancho La Brea and
Rancho La Brea stable isotope biogeochemistry and its implications for the palaeoecology of late Pleistocene, coastal southern California
Abstract We sampled 143 individuals from Rancho La Brea (RLB) large faunal collections for bone collagen stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope ratios. These collections were recovered from