Unilateral or bilateral pathology of the osseous components of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) can result in pronounced facial asymmetry because of dissimilar size and shape of the right and left sides of the mandible. To date, it is unknown whether abnormalities of the soft tissues of the TMJ are associated with greater than normal craniofacial asymmetry. In this study, we investigated the amount of craniofacial asymmetry in female orthodontic patients with unilateral or bilateral TMJ internal derangement (TMJ ID) relative to the amount in female patients without TMJ ID. The total sample consisted of 80 female adolescents. Bilateral TMJ magnetic resonance images were used as a database for objectively scoring the severity of TMJ ID. Craniofacial asymmetry was measured from posteroanterior cephalograms. Females with bilateral TMJ ID had significantly greater asymmetry in the vertical position of the antegonion. If the TMJ ID was more advanced on the right side, the ipsilateral ramus was shorter, resulting in significant asymmetry in this region. In all other craniofacial regions, the amount of asymmetry was not significant between females with normal TMJs and those with TMJ ID. The results indicate that a female orthodontic patient with bilateral TMJ ID or unilateral right TMJ ID may present with or develop a vertical mandibular discrepancy.