Cranial and spinal nerve organization in amphioxus and lampreys: evidence for an ancestral craniate pattern.

@article{Fritzsch1993CranialAS,
  title={Cranial and spinal nerve organization in amphioxus and lampreys: evidence for an ancestral craniate pattern.},
  author={Bernd Fritzsch and R. Glenn Northcutt},
  journal={Acta anatomica},
  year={1993},
  volume={148 2-3},
  pages={96-109}
}
The spinal nerves in amphioxus are compared with the spinal and cranial nerves in lampreys. The dorsal spinal roots in amphioxus are similar to the mixed sensory and motor dorsal roots of many cranial nerves in lampreys but not to the purely sensory dorsal spinal roots in lampreys and gnathostomes. Likewise, cranial nerves V, VII, IX and X in lampreys, and all spinal nerves in amphioxus, lack a separate ventral motor root which is a constant feature of all spinal motor roots in lampreys and… CONTINUE READING

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